Chapter 17- Lipid II Phospholipids, Glycosphingolipids, And Cholesterol Flashcards Preview

Biochem Spring > Chapter 17- Lipid II Phospholipids, Glycosphingolipids, And Cholesterol > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 17- Lipid II Phospholipids, Glycosphingolipids, And Cholesterol Deck (35):
1

What lipids have an essential role in the synthesis of plasma lipoproteins?

phospholipids and glycosphingolipids

2

what lipids function in transduction of messages from cell surface receptors to secondary messengers that control cellular processes?

phospholipids and glycosphingolipids

3

What lipids function as surfactant?

Phosphatidylcholine

4

Cholesterol is the precursor of what?

bile acids, steroid hormones, 7-dehydrocholesterol

5

A ceramide is composed of?

LCFA attached to amino group of sphingosine

6

a sphingomyelin is composed of?

ceramide and phosphorylcholine

7

Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine requires what nuclei acid?

cytidine triphosphate

8

accumulated sphingomyelin characterized as?

Niemann-Pick disease

9

cerebrosides formed from?

ceramide and UDP-sugars

10

accumulation of cerebrosides characterized as?

Gaucher's, Krabbe's disease

11

Sulfatides formed from?

addition of sulfate group to cerebrosides

12

accumulation of sulfides characterized as?

metachromatic leukodystrophy

13

Gangliosides formed from?

cerebrosides by addition of sugars

14

accumulation gangliosides characterized as?

GM1 gangliosidosis, Tay-Sachs disease

15

What toxin inhibits sphingolipid synthesis?

fumonisin

16

What is an important constituent of the myelin sheath of nerve fibers?

sphingomyelin

17

Enzyme deficient in Tacy-Sachs disease?

Hexosaminidase A

18

Enzyme deficient in Fabry's disease?

alpha-galactosidase

19

Enzyme deficient in Metachromatic leukodystrophy?

arylsulfatase A

20

Enzyme deficient in Krabbe's disease?

beta-galactosidase

21

Enzyme deficient in Gauchers disease?

beta-glucosidase

22

Enzyme deficient in Niemann-Pick disease?

sphingomyelinase

23

Enzyme deficient in Farber's disease?

ceramidase

24

What tissues have the largest contribution of cholesterol synthesis?

liver, intestine, adrenal cortex, reproductive tissues

25

biosynthesis of mevalonate occurs where?

cytosol

26

Where are carbons that form cholesterol derived from?

all C's from acetate

27

What molecule provides reducing equivalents for cholesterol synthesis?

NADPH

28

Reactions from mevalonic acid to cholesterol contain how many carbons at each reaction?

mevalonic acid: 6C's -> 6C's -> 5C's -> 5C's -> 10C's -> 15C's -> 30C's -> 30C's -> cholesterol: 27C's

29

If bile acids are increased this is indicative of what disease?

hepatocellular disease or obstructive jaundice

30

Bile salt that is toxic, can cause hemolysis & fever

Lithocholic acid

31

Symptoms of hyperbile acidemia

pruritus, steatorrhea, hemolytic anemia, further injury liver injury

32

What is cholelithiasis?

gallstones, precipitation of cholesterol in bile

33

What is lithogenic?

(stone forming) mole ratio of bile salts & PLs to cholesterol is less than 10:1

34

What is used to convert phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine?

3SAM -> 3SAH

35

glycerol 3-phosphate to phosphatidic acid?

2 fatty acyl-CoA -> 2 CoA-SH