Chapter 17: Reconstruction - 1865-1877 Flashcards Preview

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What were the main issues targeted by Reconstruction?

1) Political overhaul. Radical Republicans wanted to remove plantation owners and CSA officers and politicians from power.

2) Economic reconstruction. Some Northerners wanted to see the South transition to a wage based market economy for both economic and moral reasons.

3) Social reconstruction. Most Northerners wanted at least some protections and civil rights for blacks.


What ere the North's goals throughout the Civil War and Reconstruction?

1) Initial War Goal: Restoration of the Union. Prior to the Emancipation Proclamation, the only purpose of the war was to bring the South back into the fold.

2) Evolved War Goal: Emancipation. This added abolition to the war goals.

3) Ultimate Goal: Unclear. Radical Republicans wanted punitive measures against the South, radical social and political transformation, and rights for black. Lincoln, Democrats, and moderates wanted more lenience. Eventually, moderates migrated to RR's.


What were the major Reconstruction events of Johnson's presidency?

- Johnson's PAR (similar to Lincoln's)
- New St. gov's pay a little lip service to the PAR but no change occurs (esp. Black Codes)
- Congress denies representation to former CSA
- Congress overrides the following vetoes:
- Freedmen's Bureau extension
- Military Reconstruction Act
- Tenure of Office Act
- Command of the Army Act
- Johnson violates Tenure act, is impeached, isn't convicted on a 35-19 vote (1 short of conviction by 2/3 majority), loses basically all political capital and power
- Radical Republicans win


What were the major Reconstruction events of Lincoln's presidency?

-Initial lenient Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
-Wade-Davis bill and veto


Why was Grant's presidency so bad?

1) Economic depression. Widespread debt + "hard money" (currency deflation) = no money for farmers.

2) Scandals. Credit Mobilier, gold market, Sec. of War taking bribes.


What were the main causes of Reconstruction's failure?

1) White southern intransigence. This wearied the North.

2) 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were promptly neutered by SCOTUS by allowing individuals to discriminate if the gov. couldn't.

3) Grant's scandals distracted and tired the North.

4) Northerners weren't ok with using military force to compel this social reform.


What was the process of Rutherford B. Hayes' ascension to the presidency?

- Close election, won by 500k new black votes
- Electoral votes of three southern states are contested, eventually go to Hayes
- In return, Hayes essentially rescinds Reconstruction