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Flashcards in Chapter 17 Terms Deck (16):

The complete oxidation of glucose derivatives to carbon dioxide.

Citric acid (tricarboxylic acid, TCA; Krebs) cycle


Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.

Acetyl CoA


Is the process in which ATP is formed as a result of the transfer of electrons from NADH or FADH 2 to O 2 by a series of electron carriers. This process, which takes place in mitochondria, is the major source of ATP in aerobic organisms

Oxidative phosphorylation


Pyruvate is oxidatively decarboxylated by this to form acetyl CoA.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex


Proteins tightly associated with FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).



Forms citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A. It catalyzes an aldol condensation followed by a hydrolysis.

Citrate synthase


Aconitase; contains iron that is not bonded to heme. Rather, its four atoms are complexed to four inorganic sulfides and three cysteine sulfur atoms, leaving one iron atom available to bind citrate through one of its COO- groups and an OH group.

Iron-sulfur (nonheme iron) protein


Is oxidized and decarboxylated to alpha-ketoglutarate.

Isocitrate dehydrogenase


An organized assembly of three kinds of enzymes that is homologous to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation reaction: the formation of succinyl CoA from alpha-ketoglutarate.

alpha-ketoglutrate dehydrogenase


Is a temporary structural-functional complex formed between sequential enzymes of a metabolic pathway, held together by non-covalent interactions, and structural elements of the cell such as integral membrane proteins and proteins of the cytoskeleton. It has been suggested as the name for multienzyme complexes.



A reaction that leads to the net synthesis, or replenishment, of pathway components. The synthesis of oxaloacetate by the carboxylation of pyruvate is an example.

Anaplerotic reaction


A neurologic and cardiovascular disorder, which is caused by a dietary deficiency of thiamine (aka vitamin B1).



A metabolic pathway that allows the conversion of acetyl CoA generated from fats stores into glucose. This reaction sequence is similar to the citric acid cycle but bypasses the two decarboxylation steps of the cycle.

Glyoxylate cycle


Instead of being decarboxylated, as in the citric acid cycle, isocitrate is cleaved by this enzyme into succinate and glyoxylate.

Isocitrate lyase


The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction where acetyl CoA condenses with glyoxylate to form malate.

Malate synthase


Organelles in plants where reactions of the glyoxylate cycle take place.