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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (23):
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Norma

Learned socially based rules that dictate correct and incorrect behavior for various situations. Vary in culture, situation, etc.

1

Deindividuation

When people in a group temporarily lose their individuality and behave in ways that they would not otherwise.

2

Social facilitation

When the presence of other people improves performance.

3

Social impairment

When the presence of other people hinders performance.

4

Social loafing

When an individual working in a group exerts less effort than when working alone.

5

Conformity

When people change their behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined unspoken group pressure.

6

Compliance

When people adjust their behavior because of the directly expressed wishes of an individual or group.

7

Minority influence

When a minority in a group influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority.

8

Obedience

When people comply with a demand that they think they must or should do.

9

Aggression

An act intended to harm another.

10

Frustration-aggression hypothesis

Stress produces a readiness to act aggressively but the aggression will only occur if there are cues in the environment associated with an aggressive response.

11

Environmental psychology

The study of how people's behavior is affected by the environment in which they live.

12

Helping behavior

Any act intended to benefit another person.

13

Altruism

A desire to help another person rather than benefit oneself.

14

Arousal: cost-reward theory

People help of they are distressed by someone's need and if the costs of not helping outweigh the costs of helping.

15

Empathy-altruism theory

Helping is often a result of empathy with the person in need of help.

16

Cooperation

Any type of behavior in which several people work together to attain a goal.

17

Competition

Whenever individuals try to attain a goal for themselves while denying that goal to others.

18

Conflict

When one person believes that another person stands in the way of something of value.

19

Social dilemma

Situations in which an action that is most rewarding for each individual will, if adapted by all, become disastrous for everyone.
Examples: prisoner's dilemma, resource dilemma, zero-sum game

20

Task-oriented leaders

Those who provide close supervision, discourage group discussion, and give many directives.

21

Person-oriented leaders

Those who provide loose supervision, ask for group members' ideas and opinions, and demonstrate concern their feelings.

22

Groupthink

The deterioration over time of a small, closely knit group's ability to evaluate realistically the available options and the decisions it makes.