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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (87):
1

MAJOR ENDOCRINE GLANDS

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Adrenal Cortex

Outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secrets cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

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Adrenal Medulla

Inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secrets epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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Ovaries

Located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progestrogen secretion.

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Pancreas

Located behind the stomach. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secret hormones from the pancreas. The pancreas also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct, into the small intestine to aid in digestion.

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Parathyroid Glands

Four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland. Some people may have three or five parathyroid glands.

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Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)

Located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and a posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). It weighs only 1/16 of an ounc and is half-ince across.

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Testes

Two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion.

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Thyroid Gland

Located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secrets thyoxine, triiodothyonine, and calcitonin.

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HORMONES

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Adrenaline (epinephrine)

Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.

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Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); also called adrenocorticotropin. ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex.

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Aldosterone

secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption.

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Androgen

Male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone in an example.

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Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland (neurohypophysis). ADH (vasopressin) increases reabsorption of water by the kidney.

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Calcitonin

Secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels.

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Cortisol

Secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar. It is secreted in times of stress and had an anti-inflammatory effect.

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Epinephrine (adrenaline)

Secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases hear rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic). It is part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction.

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Estradiol

Estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries.

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Estrogen

Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. Examples are estradiol and estrone.

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Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis). FSH stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes.

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Glucagon

Secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancreas; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose.

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Growth Hormone GH; Somatotropin

secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (adenohypophysis); stimulates growth of bones and soft tissues.

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Insulin

Secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps glucose (sugar) to pass into cells, and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen.

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Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Secreted by the snterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males.

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Norepinephrine

Secreted by adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure. Also called noradrenaline.

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Oxytocin (OT)

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth.

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Parathromone (PTH)

Secreted by the parathyroid gland; increases blood calcium.

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Progesterone

Secreted by the Ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.

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Prolactin (PRL)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.

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Somatotropin (STH)

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.

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Testosterone

Male hormone secreted by the testes.

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Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH); Thyrotropin

Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. TSH acts on the thyroid gland to promote it functioning. Note: TSH is not secreted by the thyroid gland.

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Thyroxine (T4)

Secreted by the thyroid gland; also called tetraiodothyronine. T4 increases metabolism in cells.

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Triiodothyronine (T3)

Secreted by the thyroid gland; T3 increases metabolism in cells.

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Vasopressin

Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Vasopressin increases water reabsorption. and raises blood pressure.

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RELATED TERMS

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Catecholamines

Hormones derived from amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine is a catecholamine.

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Corticosteroids

Hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex. Examples are cortisol (raises sugar levels), aldosterone (raises salt reabsorption by kidneys), and androgens and estrogens (sex hormones).

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Electrolyte

Mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; potassium, sodium, and calcium are electrolytes.

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Glucocorticoid

Steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism. Cortisol rises blood sugar and is part of the stress response.

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Homeostasis

Tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment.

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Hormone

Substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure of function of the organ or gland.

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Hypothalamus

Region of the brain laying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. It secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland.

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Mineralocorticoid

Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.

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Receptor

Cellular or nuclear protein the binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited.

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Sella Turcica

Cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland.

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Sex Hormones

Steroids (androgen and estrogen) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics.

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Steroid

Complex substance related to fats, and of which many hormones are made. Examples are estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.

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Sympathomimetic

Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline is a sympathomimetic hormone.

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Target Tissue

Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.

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COMBINING FORMS

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aden/o

gland

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adrenal/o

adrenal gland

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gonad/o

sex glands (ovaries and testes)

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pancreat/o

pancreas

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parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

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pituitar/o

pituitary gland; hypophysis

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thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

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andr/o

male

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calc/o,calci/o

calcium

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cortic/o

cortex, outer region

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crin/o

secrete

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dips/o

thirst

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estr/o

female

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gluc/o

sugar

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glyc/o

sugar

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home/o

smaness

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hormon/o

hormone

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kal/i

potassium

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lact/o

milk

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myx/o

mucus

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natr/o

sodium

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phys/o

growing

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somat/o

body

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ster/o

solid structure

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toc/o

childbirth

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toxic/o

poison

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ur/o

urine

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eu-

good, normal

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hyper-,

excessive; above

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hypo-

deficient; below; under; less than normal

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oxy-

rapid, sharp, acid

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pan-

all

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poly-

many or increased

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tetra-

four

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tri-

three