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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (25):
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What's the process of gene expression?

DNA transcribes into RNA, which translates into proteins

1

What do proteins do?

Regulate gene expression, control traits, and control cell function.

2

What is gene expression controlled by?

The operon model.

3

How can a cell regulate the production of a enzyme?

Feedback inhibition or gene regulation

4

What is the catabolite activator protein (CAP)?

An activator of transcription.

5

What does histone acetylation do?

Loosens the chromatin structure.

6

When methylation is added to histone acetylation what happens?

It condenses the chromatin.

7

What does the addition of phosphorylation to a methylated amino acid do?

It can loosen chromatin.

8

What can DNA methylation cause?

It can cause long-term inactivation of genes in cellular differentiation.

9

To initiate transcription, what does RNA polymerase need the assistance of?

Transcription factors.

10

Where is the proximal control elements located?

Close to the promoter.

11

Where is the distal control elements located?

Either far away from the gene or in an intron.

12

What is alternative RNA splicing?

When different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which segments are treated as Exons and introns.

13

What is a proteasome?

Giant protein complexes that bind protein molecules and degrade them.

14

What is Noncoding RNA?

It's something that regulates gene expression at two points: mRNA translation and chromatin configuration.

15

What are MicroRNA?

Small single stranded RNA molecules that can bind to mRNA.

16

What is inhibition of gene expression by RNA molecules called?

RNA interference (RNAi)

17

What is RNAi caused by?

siRNA or small interfering RNA

18

What is the organization for cell types?

Tissues, organs, organ systems, whole organism.

19

What is Cell differentiation?

The process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

20

What does morphogenesis do?

Give a organism its shape.

21

What do tumor suppressor proteins do?

Repair damaged DNA, control cell adhesion, and inhibits the cell in the cell-signaling pathway.

22

What do tumor suppressor genes do?

Help prevent uncontrolled cell growth.

23

What are oncogenes?

Cancer causing genes.

24

What are proto-oncogenes?

Normal cellular genes