Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (22):
1

What are the three regulatory processes that appear in operons?

-Repressible operons
-Inducible operons
-Glucose repression

2

Why are repressible operons and inducible operons negative feedback?

Active forms turn operon off

3

Which type of operon is anabolic and which is catabolic? Why?

-Repressible = anabolic because endergonic (synthesis)
-Inducible = catabolic because exergonic (break down)

4

When does glucose repression occur and on which operon?

Lac operon when glucose level is high (meaning cAMP level is high) and lactose level is high; lactose is broken down into food

5

What are the 2 ways bacteria can regulate metabolism?

-Feedback inhibition
-Gene regulation

6

In bacteria, why are parts of gene condensed into operons?

To not waste parts and conserve energy

7

Differential gene expression

Expression of different genes by cells with same genome

8

What are the histone modification and which are the DNA modifications?

Histone: acetylation (loosens histone's grip on DNA)
DNA: methylation (tightens structure), phosphorylation (loosens methylated structure)

9

Which chromatin remodeling function is best for long-term gene inactivation?

DNA methylation

10

What happens in histone actylation?

Acetyl is added to lysine on histone tails to loosen its grip on DNA

11

What is genomic printing and what helps it occur?

Picking of maternal/paternal allele; DNA methylation

12

What is epigenetic inheritance?

That things other than nucleotide sequence can be passed down as a trait

13

What are the 2 types of control elements?

Proxal and distal

14

What are the 2 specific transcription factors?

Activators and repressors

15

In post-translational modification, what processes help to activate polypeptide chain into protein?

-Cleavage
-Addition of chemical groups

16

What does a ubiquitin protein call over to the tagged protein?

Proteasome

17

At which 2 points can noncoding RNAs regulate gene expression?

-mRNA translation
-Chromatin structure

18

What 3 processes help in zygote's development into adult?

-Cell divison
-Cell differentiation
-Morphogenesis

19

What 2 info sources tell cell early in embryonic development which cells to turn off/on?

-Cytoplasmic determinants from egg cell
-Induction signals from neighboring cells

20

Determination?

Process that fixes cells fate

21

Pattern formation?

Development of organization of cell fates

22

What does cell differentiation always involve?

Production of tissue-specific proteins