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Flashcards in chapter 18 Deck (38):
1

If you were given an attenuated vaccine what did that mean?

given a weakened organism

2

define immunis

exempt ( can't get it again)

3

Are attenuated vaccines live cultures or dead?

alive

4

Give an example of an attenuated vaccine that they give our children today

MMR

5

If someone is given an inactivated whole agent, what does that mean?

the vaccine is an entire agent/pathogen that is not alive/ nonliving culture

6

What is Acellular referring to?
What is Subunit referring to?

*Bacteria
*Virus

7

What is an interchangeable word with immunoglobulin?
(means the same thing as)

antibody

8

In innate immunity, what on the cell membrane activates complement?

proteins

9

Where is the complement system and what would you find in it?

*complement system is in the Blood
* 20 different proteins floating in inactive state

10

What must happen to the 20 different kinds of proteins floating in the blood in an inactive state, in order for them to do their jobs?

must be activated

11

Antibodies job is to bind to antigen. can this bond be broken or is it tight?

tightest bond in biology
(specific bond)

12

Precipitation is a way to help us get rid of antigens (toxins)of bacteria?
what happens during precipitation?

a toxin (antigen) that's very little, attaches to an antibody and this makes it visible so it can be seen

13

Name the constant region of antibodies
( stays the same )

Fc

14

What do you call it when there is a clumping of things together?

agglutination

15

Can precipitation, agglutination, and neutralization all occur in the same setting?

yes. toxins can bind to antibody and be made visible, antibodies can link antigens together and they can become blocked from entering the cell which means neutralization takes place

16

Can Neutralization stop a virus from getting into a cell?

yes

17

What will Trim 21 bind to?

Trim 21 binds to the antibody that is bound to the virus and tags it for destruction by proteasomes

18

If you're a virus, what does having an antibody attached to you do?

makes you recognizable to everyone

19

What is variolation?

picking scabs off person with mild case of disease (small pox), grinding it into a powder and injecting into children to give them exposure and a chance at survival

20

How is cow pox similar to small pox and was causing milk maids to be immunis?

share some of the same antigens

21

What do you call a type of vaccine that consists of modified toxins?
(toxins: bi-products of pathogens that would actually be the cause of death)

toxoids
(examples where this is used: tetanus, diptheria, whooping cough)

22

Bacterial meningitis (Haemophilus influenza B) used to kill children under the age of 5. The children's bodies could not recognize sugars so when a pathogen had a thick sugary capsule it would go unnoticed until they finally created which kind of vaccine that attached a complicated protein to a sugar to make it recognizable and build immunity?

conjugate vaccines the Hib vaccine
(sub-unit/acellular)

23

What is the most common type of vaccine used today?

subunit/acellular
injecting a piece of a virus (subunit) or a piece of bacteria (acellular) for example spikes of virus, and still create memory cells for if or when actual pathogen invades

24

Hep B virus is treated with a ___________ Vaccine. This is a vaccine that involves taking a gene that codes for a virus and putting it into a microorganism that is safe and easy to grow. (ex: putting spike gene into a yeast molecule and then everytime it replicates it does transcription and translation of yeast-spike

Recombinant (technique)

(plasmid w/ gene that codes for surface Ag)
they would take the spikes out of the yeast and inject those. Build memory cells

25

What type of vaccine is not on the market here yet that involves taking a plasmid with a gene spike and inject it into our good cells. Human cells begin producing spikes. Memory cells are made. Human cells get rid of foreign DNA eventually?

DNA vaccines

26

What is the name of the irritant that is added to vaccines to bring more WBC more quickly to the area?
(what makes it sting when they inject it)

Adjuvant

27

A Phage attaches to host cell and injects ___

DNA

28

Can a Phage DNA enter the lysogenic or lytic cycle?

yes

29

When Phage DNA enters lytic cycle, new phage DNA and proteins are synthesized and assembled into _______

virions

30

What happens to the host cell for it to release the Phage Virions?

it lyses

31

what is a bacteriophage?

a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside of it

32

What is a Prion?

Proteinaceous infectious particles
(cause of Mad cow disease)

33

How many misfolded proteins does a prion have?

1

34

Prions are acellular with no DNA.
true or false?

true

35

How does the misfolded prion protein make more of itself?

It finds others like itself and runs into them and changes their shape

36

What is Bovine spongioform encephalopathy?

Mad Cow Disease
(build up of misfolded protein in brain)

37

How did you get mad cow disease?

had to ingest/eat brain in some form

38

What is Mad Cow disease in sheep called?
what is it called in deer/elk?

*scrapie
*chronic wasting disease