Chapter 18 Flashcards Preview

Plant Biology > Chapter 18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (18):
1

Phylogeny

hereditary relationships of any group of organisms

2

Taxonomy (Taxa)

classification; any taxonomic group including species, genus, family, etc

3

Systematics

way of understanding organisms evolutionary lines; system of names: nomenclature

4

Cladistics

the study of phylogeny centered on examining the similarity of one species to others; proportion of common characteristics

5

Cladogram

a branching diagram showing the phylogenic relationships of several or many taxa

6

Clade

any ancestor (any node) and all of the branches that lead from it

7

Plesiomorphy (ancestral condition)

characters that were present in a group's ancestors; ancestral or derived trait

8

Symplesiomorphy

ancestral characters shared by two or more modern groups; shared primitive traits; not usually helpful in analyzing primitive traits

9

Apomorphy

derived characters; new characters that were not present in ancestors

10

Synapomorphy

are shared derived characters; they are derived characters that occur in two or more modern groups because those groups are closely related; they share a recent ancestor that had this character and they have inherited it

11

Homoplasy (analogous)

the result of convergent evolution; characters that appear to be the same in two or more groups but in fact they did not evolve from the same ancestral character

12

Monophyletic

includes a group of organisms descended from a single ancestor

13

Paraphyletic

a group that does not contain all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor

14

Polyphyletic

composed of unrelated organisms descended from more than one ancestor.

15

Principle of Parsimony

the concept of minimum complexity; the simplest hypothesis that explains several observations is the most parsimonious; in cladistics, a cladogram with the least number of steps is the most parsimonious

16

Bacteria

including cyanobacteria

17

Archaea

microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but radically different in molecular organization

18

Eukarya

animals, fungi, plants and protists