Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (49):
Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within the
Extracellular fluids are characterized by relatively
HIGH sodium and LOW potassium concentrations.
Intracellular fluids are characterized by relatively high concentrations of
potassium and phosphate.
The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by
hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure.
The thirst center is located in the
During the act of drinking water, the desire for water is usually inhibited by
distension of the stomach.
A person in a moderate environment probably would lose the greatest amount of water by means of
If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body,
osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell.
The hormone aldosterone functions to promote the
REABSORPTION of SODIUM.
The primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is
RISING POTASSIUM concentration.
Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by
converting 1. STRONG acids to 2. WEAK acids.
During periods of physical exercise, there is
an INCREASED production of carbonic acid, and the pH of body fluids tends to FALL.
Which of the following is an example of a physiological buffer?
Of the compartments of the extracellular water, which is the largest?
Which of the following most closely represents the percentage of water by weight in an adult male?
When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are
The phosphate buffer system consists of
sodium monohydrogen phosphate
sodium dihydrogen phosphate.
The respiratory center is most likely to cause an increase in the breathing rate if the
PH OF BODY FLUIDS is DECREASING
Compared to the average adult male, the average adult female body contains relatively
LESS water and MORE adipose tissue.
Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by
INHIBITING the release of ADH.
Obstruction of the airways leads to
Which of the following would result in edema?
BOTH low plasma protein concentration and increases in venous pressure
Addison's disease is characterized by
aldosterone DEFICIENCY and LOSS of extracellular sodium.
Excessive secretion of PTH is accompanied by
INCREASED bone resorption and INCREASED blood calcium concentration.
Prolonged diarrhea, in which the intestinal secretions are lost excessively, leads to**
Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?
administering high doses of vitamin D
Hyperventilation leads to**
Prolonged vomiting, in which only the stomach contents are lost, leads to**
Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies, leads to**
Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of indigestion may lead to
Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent due to
1. electrolytes being dissolved in 2. water.
Which of the following body compartments is correctly matched with its location in the body?
tissue spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by _____ of the extracellular fluid, and is inhibited by _____ .
an INCREASE in the osmotic pressure;
DISTENTION of the stomach by water
Nephrons function in regulating water output by the level of ADH, causing the _____ .
DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE and collecting duct to absorb more or less WATER
A strong acid is one that _____ and an example is _____ .
ionizes MORE completely;
Water intoxication is
characterized by an INCREASING osmotic concentration of the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID compartment.
Respiratory acidosis can be
caused by a decreased breathing rate and compensated for by the secretion of more hydrogen ions from the kidneys.
characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces.
characterized by extracellular fluid that is hypotonic.
Hypokalemia is characterized by
muscular weakness, respiratory difficulty, and ventricular arrhythmias.
Metabolic acidosis can be
compensated for by an increased breathing rate and DEPTH
Respiratory alkalosis can be
compensated COMPENSATED for by a decreased RESPIRATORY RATE.
In a healthy body, the quantity of water within the body
remains relatively stable at all times.
Any factor that alters water balance will also alter
The greatest output of electrolytes normally occurs by way of
Sometimes the carboxyl groups of proteins release
The kidneys help to regulate the hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids by
altering the rate at which hydrogen ions are secreted.
A protein functions as an acid-base buffer system by the ________ group of a molecule accepting hydrogen ions in the presence of excess acid and the ____ group of a molecule releasing hydrogen ions in the presence of excess base.