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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Deck (49):
1

Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within the

blood vessels

2

Extracellular fluids are characterized by relatively

HIGH sodium and LOW potassium concentrations.

3

Intracellular fluids are characterized by relatively high concentrations of

potassium and phosphate.

4

The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by

hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure.

5

The thirst center is located in the

hypothalamus.

6

During the act of drinking water, the desire for water is usually inhibited by

distension of the stomach.

7

A person in a moderate environment probably would lose the greatest amount of water by means of

urine.

8

If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body,

osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell.

9

The hormone aldosterone functions to promote the

REABSORPTION of SODIUM.

10

The primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is

RISING POTASSIUM concentration.

11

Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes by

converting 1. STRONG acids to 2. WEAK acids.

12

During periods of physical exercise, there is

an INCREASED production of carbonic acid, and the pH of body fluids tends to FALL.

13

Which of the following is an example of a physiological buffer?

renal mechanism

14

Of the compartments of the extracellular water, which is the largest?

INTERSTITIAL fluid

15

Which of the following most closely represents the percentage of water by weight in an adult male?

65%

16

When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone, potassium ions are

secreted.

17

The phosphate buffer system consists of

sodium monohydrogen phosphate
and
sodium dihydrogen phosphate.

18

The respiratory center is most likely to cause an increase in the breathing rate if the

PH OF BODY FLUIDS is DECREASING

19

Compared to the average adult male, the average adult female body contains relatively

LESS water and MORE adipose tissue.

20

Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by

INHIBITING the release of ADH.

21

Obstruction of the airways leads to

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

22

Which of the following would result in edema?

BOTH low plasma protein concentration and increases in venous pressure

23

Addison's disease is characterized by

aldosterone DEFICIENCY and LOSS of extracellular sodium.

24

Excessive secretion of PTH is accompanied by

INCREASED bone resorption and INCREASED blood calcium concentration.

25

Prolonged diarrhea, in which the intestinal secretions are lost excessively, leads to**

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

26

Which of the following would be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia?

administering high doses of vitamin D

27

Hyperventilation leads to**

RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

28

Prolonged vomiting, in which only the stomach contents are lost, leads to**

METABOLIC ALKALOSIS

29

Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies, leads to**

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

30

Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of indigestion may lead to

METABOLIC ALKALOSIS

31

Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent due to

1. electrolytes being dissolved in 2. water.

32

Which of the following body compartments is correctly matched with its location in the body?

extracellular-fluid within:

tissue spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

33

The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by _____ of the extracellular fluid, and is inhibited by _____ .

an INCREASE in the osmotic pressure;

DISTENTION of the stomach by water

34

Nephrons function in regulating water output by the level of ADH, causing the _____ .

DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE and collecting duct to absorb more or less WATER

35

A strong acid is one that _____ and an example is _____ .

ionizes MORE completely;

HC1

36

Water intoxication is

characterized by an INCREASING osmotic concentration of the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID compartment.

37

Respiratory acidosis can be

caused by a decreased breathing rate and compensated for by the secretion of more hydrogen ions from the kidneys.

38

Edema is

characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces.

39

Hyponatremia is

characterized by extracellular fluid that is hypotonic.

40

Hypokalemia is characterized by

muscular weakness, respiratory difficulty, and ventricular arrhythmias.

41

Metabolic acidosis can be

compensated for by an increased breathing rate and DEPTH

42

Respiratory alkalosis can be

compensated COMPENSATED for by a decreased RESPIRATORY RATE.

43

In a healthy body, the quantity of water within the body

remains relatively stable at all times.

44

Any factor that alters water balance will also alter

electrolyte balance.

45

The greatest output of electrolytes normally occurs by way of

urine.

46

Sometimes the carboxyl groups of proteins release

hydrogen ions.

47

The kidneys help to regulate the hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids by

altering the rate at which hydrogen ions are secreted.

48

A protein functions as an acid-base buffer system by the ________ group of a molecule accepting hydrogen ions in the presence of excess acid and the ____ group of a molecule releasing hydrogen ions in the presence of excess base.

COO-

NH3

49

Chemical buffer systems function _______ against shift in pH, whereas physiological buffer systems function _______

rapidly

more slowly.