Flashcards in Chapter 18: Crime Typologies Part 2 Deck (35)
What are multi-trait typologies based on?
The Behavioral Systems Approach
Who created the Behavioral Systems Approach?
Marshall Clinard and Richard Quinney
What are the 5 different dimensions traits for the multi-trait typology?
(1) legal aspects (of selected offenses)
(2) criminal career (of the offender)
(3) group support (for criminal behavior)
(4) correspondence (between criminal and legitimate behavior)
(5) societal reaction (and legal processing)
What are the behavioral systems in this typology?
(1) Violent Personal Criminal Behavior
(2) Conventional Criminal Behavior
(3) Occupational Criminal Behavior
(4) Corporate Criminal Behavior
(5) Organized Criminal Behavior
(6) Occasional Property Criminal Behavior
(7) Public-Order Criminal Behavior
(8) Political Criminal Behavior
(9) Professional Criminal Behavior
What type of acts are involved in, violent personal criminal behavior, system?
homicide, assault, and rape
What are the characteristics of offenders in this type of behavioral system?
-they don’t perceive themselves as being “criminal”
-they do not typically have an extensive criminal record
-murderers and rapists are the least likely types of criminals to be repeat offenders
Why is there little to no group support for crimes in the, violent personal criminal behavior, system?
they are driven by person motives
How does the “subculture of violence” and the “Code of the street” explain this type of behavior in the ,violent criminal behavior, system?
suggest that there is some subcultural support for pro-violent norms and behavior within some social groups and geographical areas
Which type of behavioral system elicits the most sever societal reaction?
Violent Personal Criminal Behavior
What type of acts are involved in the, Conventional Criminal Behavior, System?
theft/larceny from the person, a residential or nonresidential structure, or from a business/commercial establishment
What are the characteristics of offenders in the, Conventional Criminal Behavior, system?
-have long histories of criminal activity that begin in early adolescence
-medium to high level of a criminal self-concept
What level of group support does, Conventional Criminal Behavior, system have?
ranges from medium to high, is often encouraged and socially facilitated by their peers/companions/associates
Why is there a moderate level of correspondence between this illegal behavior and conventional behavior, in, Conventional Criminal Behavior, system?
(1) consistent with the goals of economic success
(2) inconsistent with the acceptable, legitimate means of achieving these goals
According to Merton’s theory of anomie, the correspondence between illegal behavior and conventional behavior, under the, Conventional Criminal Behavior, system is known as what?
How are people under the Conventional Criminal Behavior system punished?
first time offenders are usually given short prison sentences, while chronic or habitual offenders are given long prison sentences
What type of offenses are found in the, Occupational Criminal Behavior, system?
expense account misuse
bribery of public officials
What are the characteristics of offenders in the, Occupational Criminal Behavior, system?
-do not have criminal record
-do not have a criminal self-concept
-often use techniques of neutralization
-use the “buyer beware” philosophy as justification for fraud
Why do offenders in the, Occupational Criminal Behavior, system commit crime?
for personal gains within the context of their work and/or occupation
Why is there high correspondence between the conventional and criminal behavior for, Occupational Criminal Behavior, system offenders?
their work environment provides the physical opportunities to commit these crimes
What level of group support does, Occupational Criminal Behavior system have, and why?
little to no group support, because they often work alone and victimize their own company
How are offenders within the Occupational Criminal Behavior system punished?
-when caught offenders are usually handled informally within the company/business
-their criminal sentences are often lenient
Why is criminal prosecution relatively rare in the Occupational Criminal Behavior system?
they typically want to keep things “in house”, within the company/business
Who is the offender in the Corporate Criminal Behavior?
committed by people on behalf of their organization/businesses for purposes of supporting these organizations
Who is the primary benefactor in the Corporate Criminal Behavior system?
the company or business
What type of offenses are found in the Corporate Criminal Behavior system?
-the restraint of trade
-manufacturing unsafe food and drugs
What level of group support does the Corporate Criminal Behavior system have?
strong organizational support
How are people under the Corporate Criminal Behavior system punished?
criminal prosecutions are rare
if caught, they are typically resolved through administrative sanctions
Under the Corporate Criminal Behavior system, their _______ activity is closely tied to their legitimate business activities and it is often viewed as reflecting “sharp” business practices rather than criminal behavior.
Under the Corporate Criminal Behavior system, their illegal activity is closely tied to their __________ __________ activities and it is often viewed as reflecting “sharp” business practices rather than criminal behavior.