Chapter 18: Practical Applications of Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18: Practical Applications of Immunology Deck (38):
1

What is Vaccination?

suspension of organisms or fractions of organisms that induce immunity

2

What is Variolation?

inoculation of smallpox into the skin
(made Jenner famous)

3

Weakened pathogen;
Closely mimic an actual infection;
Confers lifelong cellular and humoral immunity
These are all features of what type of vaccines?

Live attenuated vaccines

4

Safer than live vaccines;
Require repeated booster doses;
Induce mostly humoral immunity;
These are all features of what type of vaccines?

Inactivated killed vaccines

5

Subunit vaccines use _______ _________ to stimulate an immune response

antigenic fragments

6

This type of vaccine is used for diseases in children with poor immune response to capsular polysaccharides

Conjugated vaccines

7

Nucleic acid (DNA) vaccines use ______ DNA fragments to produce the protein antigen encoded in the DNA

naked

8

This vaccination technology delivers a dry formulation of a vaccine to the skin

Nanopatches

9

What are "Adjuvants"?

Chemical additives added to vaccines to improve effectiveness
(They improve the innate immune response)

10

True OR False?
MMR Vaccines can cause autism

False

11

What does the term "Sensitivity" mean with respect to Diagnostic Immunology?

The probability that the test is reactive if the specimen is a true positive

12

What does the term "Specificity" mean with respect to Diagnostic Immunology?

The probability that a positive test will not be reactive if a specimen is a true negative

13

This "immortal" cancerous B cell (myeloma) combines with an antibody-producing normal B cell, to produce monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)

Hybridoma

14

This type of antibody, is uniform; highly specific; can be produced in large quantities; are used in diagnostic tools;
are used in human therapy; and are often derived from mouse cells, leading to side effects.

Monoclonal Antibodies

15

What are "Chimeric monoclonal antibodies"?

Mabs with a mouse variable region and human constant region
(think of the mythical chimera, it's a bunch of animals mashed into one thing)

16

What are "Humanized antibodies"?

Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding sites

17

"Fully human antibodies" are produced using a ....

human gene implanted in a mouse

18

What happens in a "precipitation reaction"?

An Antigen-antibody complex forms, followed by the formation of a lattice that precipitates from solution

19

In the Precipitin ring test a cloudy line forms where there is the optimal ratio of ________ and ________

antigen, antibody

20

This test is a precipitation reaction carried out in an agar gel medium

Immunodiffusion

21

This test combines electrophoresis with immunodiffusion, and separates proteins in human serum

Immunoelectrophoresis

22

The concentration of serum antibody is known as...?

Titer
(A rise in titer indicates a greater immunity to disease)

23

What are Agglutination Reactions?

Particulate antigens binding to antibodies to form visible aggregates
(antibody causes stuff to clump)

24

This term means a significant change in titer as a disease progresses

Seroconversion

25

What happens in Indirect (passive) agglutination tests?

The antibody reacts with the soluble antigen adhering to the particles or vice versa

26

The Agglutination of RBC surface antigens and complementary antibodies (used in blood typing) is known as ...?

Hemagglutination

27

Viral hemagglutination - occurs when viruses agglutinate RBCs without an antigen-antibody reaction, is an indicator of...

Mumps, measles, influenza

28

Antigen-antibody reactions where the harmful effects of an exotoxin or a virus are blocked (or neutralized) by antibodies to the toxin (antitoxin), are known as...?

Neutralization Reactions

29

What is the Viral hemagglutination inhibition test used for?

Subtyping viruses

30

What happens in a Complement fixation reaction?
(Works for antibodies that do not work with precipitation or agglutination reactions)

complement serum protein binds to and is fixed to the antigen–antibody complex

31

Fluorescent-Antibody Techniques combine Antibodies with _______ _____

Fluorescent dyes

32

Direct Fluorescent-Antibody test are best for identifying microorganisms in ______ _______

clinical specimens

33

In-Direct Fluorescent-Antibody test are best for detecting specific antibodies in...?

serum

34

In In-Direct Fluorescent-Antibody tests, Anti-human immune serum globulin (anti-HISG) is added and will react with any antibody in serum if the result is ______?

positive

35

What happens in Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) ?

1)Laser beam strikes a droplet containing a cell
2)Detector determines size and fluorescence of surface molecules
3)Imparts a charge to the cell, separating cells

36

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is used to detect _______ by adding a substrate for the linked enzyme; a color is produced

antigens

37

What's the difference between direct and indirect ELISA?

Direct - detects antigens
Indirect - detects antibodies

38

This Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test identifies proteins via electrophoresis and a blotter

Western Blotting
(just remember the blotting part)