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Flashcards in chapter 19 Deck (38):
1

Functions of the kidneys include all but one of the following. Identify the exception.
A) homeostatic regulation of blood pH
B) regulation of blood protein levels
C) maintenance of ion balance in body fluids
D) regulation of extracellular fluid volume
E) regulation of blood osmolarity

B) regulation of blood protein levels

2

Ions directly regulated by the kidney include all EXCEPT which of the following?
A) HCO3-
B) C a2+
C) Na+
D) OH-
E) K+

D) OH-

3

The characteristic yellow color of urine is attributed to the presence of
A) uric acid.
B) bile.
C) urea.
D) urobilinogen.
E) renin

D) urobilinogen.

4

Urine is produced by the
A) kidney.
B) gallbladder.
C) ureter.
D) urinary bladder.
E) urethra.

A) kidney.

5

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
A) blood vessels.
B) the ureters.
C) the urethra.
D) lymphatics.
E) All of the answers are correct

B) the ureters.

6

Technically, the kidneys are located
A) behind the pleural membranes.
B) in the abdominal cavity.
C) behind the peritoneal membrane.
D) in the thoracic cavity.
E) in the pelvic cavity.

C) behind the peritoneal membrane.

7

Blood flow through the kidney includes a feature seen in only a few organs. What is it?
A) anastomoses
B) veins containing highly oxygenated blood
C) portal system
D) vascular sinuses
E) arterial shunts

C) portal system

8

Which structure is NOT part of the blood circulation through the kidney?
A) renal corpuscle
B) vasa recta
C) loop of Henle
D) glomerulus

C) loop of Henle

9

Which statement is NOT true?
A) The kidneys do not reabsorb filtered waste products.
B) As much as one fourth of the cardiac output may flow to the kidneys at any given moment.
C) Women are more likely to develop urinary tract infections than men.
D) The blood supply to the kidneys comes through the renal arteries.
E) The urinary bladder is filled by two ducts, called ureters, and emptied by the single urethra.

A) The kidneys do not reabsorb filtered waste products.

10

The Bowman's capsule and glomerulus make up the
A) renal papilla.
B) collecting system.
C) renal corpuscle.
D) renal pyramid.
E) loop of Henle

C) renal corpuscle.

11

Which of the following kidney processes is always active and always requires energy to occur?
A) reabsorption
B) filtration
C) excretion
D) secretion

D) secretion

12

A glomerulus is
A) the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
B) the hairpin-shaped segment of the nephron.
C) the expanded end of a nephron.
D) a "knot" of capillaries that lies within the Bowman's capsule.
E) the portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle.

D) a "knot" of capillaries that lies within the Bowman's capsule.

13

The portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle is the
A) minor calyx.
B) collecting duct.
C) loop of Henle.
D) proximal tubule.
E) distal tubule.

D) proximal tubule.

14

The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the
A) collecting duct.
B) proximal tubule.
C) minor calyx.
D) loop of Henle.
E) distal tubule.

E) distal tubule.

15

The hairpin-shaped segment of the nephron is the
A) loop of Henle.
B) proximal tubule.
C) vasa recta.
D) minor calyx.
E) distal tubule.

A) loop of Henle.

16

The segment of the nephron between the proximal and distal tubules that loops down into the
medulla of the kidney and returns back to the cortex is called the
A) minor calyx.
B) Bowman's capsule.
C) vasa recta.
D) loop of Henle.
E) collecting duct.

D) loop of Henle.

17

The process of filtration in the kidney is most accurately described as
A) completely nonspecific.
B) relatively nonspecific.
C) highly specific.

B) relatively nonspecific.

18

All of the following will normally be found in the filtrate EXCEPT
A) erythrocytes.
B) glucose.
C) urobilinogen.
D) potassium.

A) erythrocytes.

19

Cysts on the kidney can press upon nephrons, raising the pressure inside the nephrons. How will
this affect glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure?
A) GFR decreases and blood pressure increases
B) GFR increases and blood pressure increases
C) GFR decreases and blood pressure decreases
D) GFR increases and blood pressure decreases

A) GFR decreases and blood pressure increases

20

The amount of plasma that filters into the nephrons is approximately ________ of the total volume.
A) 3/4
B) 1/2
C) 1/5
D) 4/5
E) 90%

C) 1/5

21

In normal kidneys, blood cells and plasma proteins are A) secreted then reabsorbed.
B) not filtered.
C) filtered then reabsorbed.
D) filtered and secreted.

B) not filtered.

22

Which is NOT a kidney filtration barrier?
A) juxtaglomerular apparatus
B) Bowman's capsule epithelium
C) basal lamina
D) glomerular capillary endothelium

A) juxtaglomerular apparatus

23

The force for glomerular filtration is the
A) fluid pressure produced by the displacement of the fluid in the lumen of the tubules.
B) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries.
C) ATP-dependent processes in the nephron.
D) osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries.
E) None of the answers are correct.

B) blood pressure in the glomerular capillaries.

24

The primary function of the proximal tubule is
A) filtration.
B) secretion of drugs.
C) adjusting the urine volume.
D) secretion of acids and ammonia.
E) reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, and water.

E) reabsorption of ions, organic molecules, and water.

25

Contents in the peritubular capillaries are actively transported into proximal and distal convoluted
tubules in a process known as
A) reabsorption.
B) excretion.
C) secretion.
D) filtration.

C) secretion.

26

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed by
A) diffusion.
B) symport with sodium.
C) countertransport.
D) cotransport.

B) symport with sodium.

27

Which of the following statements about autoregulation is NOT true?
A) In myogenic response, the macula densa cells send a paracrine message to the neighboring
afferent arteriole.
B) Myogenic response is the intrinsic ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to pressure
changes.
C) In tubuloglomerular feedback, stretch-sensitive ion channels open, resulting in depolarization of smooth muscle cells.
D) Myogenic response is a paracrine signaling mechanism.

B) Myogenic response is the intrinsic ability of vascular smooth muscle to respond to pressure
changes.

28

Place the following blood vessels that carry blood to and within the kidney in the order in which
blood passes through them.
1. afferent arteriole
2. efferent arteriole
3. glomerulus
4. peritubular capillary
A) 1, 3, 2, 4
B) 3, 4, 2, 1
C) 4, 3, 2, 1
D) 1, 2, 3, 4
E) 4, 2, 3, 1

A) 1, 3, 2, 4

29

When the plasma concentration of a substance exceeds its renal concentration, more of the
substance will be
A) excreted.
B) reabsorbed.
C) secreted.
D) filtered.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) excreted.

30

Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first with the functioning of the
A) collecting ducts.
B) proximal tubule.
C) distal tubule.
D) Bowman's capsule.
E) glomerulus.

A) collecting ducts.

31

An obstruction in a glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the
A) renal vein.
B) efferent arteriole.
C) renal artery.
D) afferent arteriole.

B) efferent arteriole.

32

If blood flow through the afferent arterioles increases,
A) stretch reflexes trigger vasoconstriction to reduce the flow.
B) the smooth muscle in the vessel walls stretches to accommodate the increased flow and the
stretch triggers further relaxation of the arteriolar wall, lessening blood pressure.
C) the stretch triggers further relaxation of the arteriolar wall, lessening blood pressure.
D) the smooth muscle in the vessel walls stretches to accommodate the increased flow.

A) stretch reflexes trigger vasoconstriction to reduce the flow.

33

Urea is
A) actively transported into the filtrate by the cells of the collecting duct.
B) actively secreted in the distal tubule.
C) actively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule.
D) completely eliminated in the urine.
E) passively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule.

E) passively reabsorbed in the proximal tubule.

34

In the lumen of the proximal tubule, Na+ concentration ________ the Na+ concentration inside the cells of the tubule wall.
A) is much higher than
B) is about the same as
C) is much lower than
D) is slightly higher than
E) is slightly lower than

A) is much higher than

35

The typical pattern for molecules absorbed by Na+-dependent transport involves this: an apical ________ and a basolateral ________.
A) osmotic gradient, symport protein
B) facilitated diffusion carrier, symport protein
C) symport protein, osmotic gradient
D) symport protein, facilitated diffusion carrier
E) facilitated diffusion carrier, osmotic gradient

D) symport protein, facilitated diffusion carrier

36

One substance has no membrane transporters to move it but can diffuse freely through open leak
channels if there is a concentration gradient. Initially, this substance's concentrations in the filtrate
and extracellular fluid are equal. Later, however, the active transport of Na+ and other solutes creates a gradient by removing water from the lumen of the tubule where it is located. What
substance is this?
A) calcium
B) glucose
C) urea
D) glucose and calcium
E) glucose, calcium, and urea

C) urea

37

Measurements in a nephron reveal a glomerular hydraulic pressure of 69 mm Hg, and a fluid
pressure in the Bowman's capsule of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the plasma osmotic pressure is 30
mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net
glomerular filtration pressure in this case?
A) -6 mm Hg
B) 24 mm Hg
C) 114 mm Hg
D) 54 mm Hg
E) 84 mm Hg

B) 24 mm Hg

38

In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular
filtration rate (GFR)?
A) constriction of the afferent arteriole
B) a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood
C) a decrease in the net glomerular filtration pressure
D) a decrease in the hydraulic pressure of the glomerulus
E) an increase in the capsular hydraulic pressure

B) a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood