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Flashcards in Chapter 19 Building Codes & Regulations Deck (37):

**Designers are responsible for reviewing local codes, and ensuring their designs are compliant

Because each jurisdiction has unique requirements/amendments, designers must review to determine complete compliance for specific project

Building codes only one type of regulation affecting buildings; additional requirements may include legal/administrative regulations at state, federal, local level


**National electrical codes has been adopted Nation wide



**State and federal regulations

Most states have agencies that regulate building; in addition to building code, may enforce energy codes, environmental regulations, fabric flammability, specific rules relating to state government buildings


**Most commonly used code today is?



International Residential Code (IRC)

govern specific aspects of construction not addressed in main code



National Fire Prevention Association; develops standards relating to causes/prevention of fires



American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) publishes thousands of test procedures prescribing, in detail, how tests are set up, conducted, etc. ASTM does not perform tests; its standards are used by testing agencies



Underwriters Laboratories

UL-listed labels mean a total product has passed safety test and is manufactured under

UL follow-up services program

UL-classified label means samples of product tested for certain types of uses only; product with this label must carry statement specifying conditions that were tested for

UL’s Building Materials Directory lists products that have passed safety tests


**Building codes recognize that there is no such thing as a fireproof building; there are only degrees of fire resistance. Two broad classifications of fire resistance:

-Fire resistance of materials & assemblies

-Surface burning characteristics of finish materials


**Most common construction assembly interior design projects require are?



**Materials by themselves do NOT create a fire-rated barrier; the construction assembly of which they are a part is fire-resistant. The ENTIRE assembly must be completed exactly as specified for the assembly to be considered a fire-rated barrier assembly.



**Fire partition:

**wall assembly with 1-hr. rating used in following locations:

-Walls separating dwelling units (apartments, dormitories, assisted living facilities)

-Walls separating guest rooms

-Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings

-Corridor walls

-½-hour walls allowed in sprinklered buildings, a few other exceptions

-Must provide continuous barrier, securely attached, extending continuously from floor to structure, or floor to rated ceiling with few exceptions

-Openings must be min. ¾-hour, except corridors, which must have 20-min. assemblies

-continuous slab-to slab partitions usually best and cheapest solution


Fire barrier:

**fire-resistance-rated vertical or horizontal assembly designed to restrict spread of fire, confine it to limited areas, and/or afford safe passage for protected egress

**Provides more protection than fire partitions

Used for the following purposes:
-To enclose vertical exit enclosures (stairways), exit passageways, horizontal exits, and incidental use areas

-To separate different occupancies in a mixed-occupancy situation

-To separate single occupancies into different fire areas

-To otherwise provide a fire barrier where specifically required by code

-Must ALWAYS (with very few exceptions) be continuous from floor slab to underside of floor or roof slab above

-May be required to have fire-resistance rating greater than 1-hour

-Protection for openings in fire barriers vary from ¾-3 hours per IBC

-Openings limited to 25% aggregate length of wall; max. opening size 120s.f.


**Fire barrier opening size exceptions:

-Openings can be greater than 120s.f. if adjoining fire areas equipped throughout with sprinklers

-Fire doors serving exit enclosure can exceed opening limitations

-If opening protective assembly has been tested per code requirements & equal or better fire rating, size not limited per opening standards.


In addition to openings, penetrations, joints, ducts, air transfer openings must be protected as specified in code



Fire wall:

resistance-rated wall used to separate single structure into separate construction types or provide for allowable area increases


Smoke barrier

continuous vertical or horizontal membrane with min. 1-hr. rating designed to restrict movement of smoke


IBC rates carpet; it specifically does NOT rate hard flooring, such as wood, terrazzo, vinyl, linoleum



**Carpet rated as

Class I or Class II; Class I more fire-resistant


**Textile finishes must meet one of three conditions for use:

Must be rated Class A per ASTM E84 & be protected by sprinklers

Must meet requirements of Method B test protocol of NFPA 265

Must meet requirements of NFPA 286
Ceiling textiles must meet ASTM E84 with sprinklers or NFPA 286


**Occupancy Groups per IBC:

A Assembly
B Business
E Educational
F Factory & Industrial
H Hazardous
I Institutional
M Mercantile
R Residential
S Storage
U Utility


**Define Occupancy:

refers to type of use assigned to a building or interior space


**Occupancy classification affects the following:

-Occupancy load calculation
-Egress design
-Interior finish requirements
-Use of fire partitions, fire barriers
-Fire detection/suppression systems
-Ventilation & sanitation requirements
-Other special restrictions particular to a given classification


**Accessory occupancy :

is space used in conjunction with main occupancy, but less than 10% of floor area of main occupancy

-Do not need separation with fire barrier


**Incidental use area:

is area required to have fire separation, even though same classification as nearest main occupancy


**Every building is classified into one of five types of construction based on fire resistance of certain building components: Types called Type I-V;

-Type I most fire-resistive (most fire resistant)

-Types I & II are noncombustible

-Types III, IV, V are combustible (least fire resistant)


Glass used in fire-rated partitions is divided into two types by IBC

-fire-protection-rated glazing

-fire-resistance-rated glazing


Fire-protection-rated glazing is:

¼” thick wired glass in steel frames or others that meet applicable requirements; must have 45-minute rating, limited to 1-hr. rated partitions & fire barriers when fire barrier is used to separate occupancies or incidental use areas


Fire-resistance-rated glazing is:

glazing material meeting ASTM E119, which allows special fire-rated glazing with ratings up to 2 hours; may be used in partitions with ratings higher than 1-hour; glazing must have same rating as partition in these cases. No area limitations.


Almost all buildings require some type of detection device, even single smoke detectors in residences



Fire protection system:

fire alarm or extinguishing device/system designed to detect, control, or extinguish fire, alert occupants & fire department of fire, or any combination of these systems

Systems designed to detect:
-Smoke or other products of combustion
-Rise in temperature to predetermined level
-Rate of temperature rise to predetermined rate of change


**Guards (guardrails)

-A guard is a component that prevents falls from an elevated area

-Required along open-sided walking surfaces, mezzanines, industrial equipment platforms, stairways, ramps, landings over 30” above floor below

-Stages and some raised platforms exceptions

-Min. 42” high, designed so 4” sphere cannot pass through any opening up to a height of 34”

-Must resist load of 50lb/ft. applied in any direction to top of guard


**Mechanical systems

International Mechanical Code details requirements for materials, design of HVAC equipment


**Plumbing systems

-IBC specifies number of sanitary fixtures required based on occupancy

-International Plumbing Code companion volume of IBC; gives minimum number of toilets, lavatories, drinking fountains, etc.


**Electrical systems

-IBC references NEC

-Details requirements for materials, design of power supply, lighting systems

-Specifies outlet locations, required GFI outlets


**Sound ratings:

-IBC requires wall, floor/ceiling assemblies in residential occupancies separating dwelling units or guest rooms from each other and from public spaces be designed/constructed to provide sound transmission control

-Minimum STC 50 (45 if field-tested) for walls; does not apply to dwelling unit entrance doors, but these must be tight-fitting to frame & sill

-Minimum IIC for floors must be 50 (45 if field-tested)


**IBC and model codes do not regulate furniture flammability:

-Some local/state jurisdictions do include furniture flammability standards as part of their purview

-Standards to define limits on material’s flammability in terms of the following characteristics may apply:

-Resistance to ignition, flame spread, smoldering, prevention of smoke development, prevention of heat contribution to growth of fire, and prevention of toxic gas release