Flashcards in Chapter 19 - Lifestyle Modification and Behavioral Coaching Deck (37):
What are the stages of change?
What is the best strategy for someone in the Precontemplation Stage of Change?
Suggest where they might get information about becoming more active, make it attractive, easy-to-read materials.
Make every effort to talk to precontemplators to find out what they think of exercise and try to dispel any myths they may have.
What is the best strategy for someone in the Contemplation Stage of Change?
find out what clients see as the pros and cons of exercise and suggest avenues of info for erroneous beliefs.
Discuss ways to deal with perceived cons of exercise.
Help client develop motivational programs that will lead to long-term adherence.
Describe a person within the Precontemplation stage of change.
Do not exercise and do not intend to start in the next 6 months
Describe a person within the Contemplation stage of change.
Do not exercise but plan to become more active in next 6 months
Describe a person within the Preparation stage of change.
Do occasionally exercise, but are planning to begin exercising regularly in the next month.
Describe a person within the Action stage of change.
Person has started to exercise, but have no maintained the behavior or 6 months.
Describe a person within the Maintenance stage of change.
Person has maintained change (consistent exercise) for 6 months or more.
What is the best strategy for someone in the Preparation Stage of Change?
1.Help clients clarify realistic goals
2. Help clients maintain belief in importance of exercise
3. Discuss programs that work best for different clients
4. Consider clients' schedules, preference, and health concerns
5. Ask about previous successful experience with exercise
6. Avoid exercise that could lead to discomfort or injury
7. Discuss building a social support network
What is the best strategy for someone in the Action Stage of Change?
Continue to provide education because it will strengthen their belief in the pros of exercise. Important to discuss barriers to exercise and to anticipate upcoming disruptions (example: vacation)
What is the best strategy for someone in the Maintenance Stage of Change?
Old habits can still be tempting, suggest that clients have a maintenance check-in plan that includes reinforcing pros, discuss progress, and help them change up their workout plan.
List 5 Common Barriers to Exercise.
1. Time: Perceived lack of time is not in reality (time journal helpful)
2. Unrealistic Goals
3. Lack of Social Support
4. Social Physique Anxiety
5. Convenience: Access to facilities, classes, personal trainers, and instructors
List 3 Behavioral Strategies to Enhance Exercise Adherance
2. Goal Setting
What is the main Cognitive Strategy to Enhance Exercise Adherence? How is it achieved?
Positive Self-Talk via
- Psyching Up
What does the acronym "S.M.A.R.T." stand for?
What are some benefits of the "Self-Monitoring" behavioral strategy?
1. Gives client the opportunity to look at progress over time
2. Being able to see progress builds self-confidence and self-esteem, which leads to exercise adherence
3. Log can be used in as a form of accountability and aid with motivation
4. Encourages clients to be honest about their activity, which encourages them to stick to an exercise program
5. Logging a workout serves as a reward
6. Helps clients identify challenging situations and barriers to exercise
What are some benefits of the "Positive Self-Talk" cognitive strategy?
1. Helps clients become aware of their negative thought process by making a list of any negative thoughts they may have around exercise.
2. Coming up with a list of positive thoughts that surround exercise helps to use for reference when feeling negative.
3. Creating a positive that counteracts every negative will help create awareness and help translate negative thoughts into positive.
What is "Exercise Imagery"?
The process created to produce internalized experiences to support or enhance exercise participation.
What are some psychological benefits of exercise?
1. Promotes positive mood
2. Reduces stress
3. Improves sleep
4. Reduces anxiety and depression
What is Social Support? What are the 4 kinds of support?
- Physical and emotional comfort that a person receives from others
Types of Support:
List some types of "group" exercise influences.
3. Exercise Leader
4. Exercise Group (both size and composition)
What is instrumental support? Give some examples.
- The tangible and practical factors necessary to help a person adhere to exercise or achieve exercise goals.
- Transportation to facility
- Spotter for weight-lifting
What is emotional support and why is it important (in regard to exercise)?
-encouragement, caring, empathy, concern
-will enhance self-esteem and reduce anxiety
examples: raising client for efforts, encourage to work harder, sympathize with sore muscles
What is informational support (in regard to exercise)?
- Directions, advice, suggestions about how to exercise, feedback regarding their progress
- (one of the main reasons why people come to personal trainers in the first place)
What is companionship support? What are some benefits of companionship support?
-Availability of family, friends and coworkers with whom clients can exercise with
-Produces positive feelings and may distract people from the negative aspects of exercise-related feelings such as fatigue, pain, and boredom and can provide a sense of camaraderie and accountability
List some effective communication skills
1. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
2. Active Listening
3. Asking Questions
6. Using Affirmations
7. Asking Permission!!!
Explain the communication skill, "Using Affirmations" and explain its importance and difference from a compliment.
- Affirmations show appreciation for clients and their strengths
- P.T. must listen carefully to know what to affirm
- Important to genuinely affirm something the client personally values (about client's thoughts, plans or skills) rather than clothes, sneakers, HR monitor, etc
- Compliments are more "I" statements and create an external advantage point
- Affirmations are more "you" statements and creates an internal client attribute
What is "Reflecting"? Why is it important?
- A conversational technique that expresses the purported meaning of what was just heard.
- Expresses caring and communicates understanding
- Making sure what you heard was accurate to what the client was trying to say
What is Self-Management? What is the benefit of self-management? What is it accomplished / what should be included?
- A behavioral strategy where individuals manage their own behaviors, thoughts, and emotions and change whatever is not working.
- Improves individual’s skills and ability to monitor and change what isn’t working
- Coping with and adapting lifestyle changes associated with beginning or returning to exercise
- Daily Logs “Exercise Logs” proven to be beneficial with this type
- Track exercise (time and date, calories expended, - Perceived heart rate
- Food / diet
- Thoughts, feelings, emotions, etc
- Period cycle (for females)
Define Goal Setting (behavioral strategy).
- Process that involves assessing one’s current level of fitness or performance and creating a specific, measurable, realistic and challenging goal for one’s future level of fitness or performance and detailing actions to be taken to achieve that goal
(6 mo, next year, next 5 years, dream accomplishment)
What is Self-Monitoring? What should a client include when self-monitoring? What is the benefit of self-monitoring?
- Behavioral strategy usually done in form of a daily written record of the behavior in which the client is trying to change
- Time (and date)
- Calories expended
- Perceived heart rate,
- Sleep cycle,
- Feeling emotionally (track period for females)
- Helps look at progression over time
What is Social Physique Anxiety?
- Concern with body image
- Overemphasize the difference between their body type and the body types of others when in a fitness facility.
Why are unrealistic goals a common barrier to exercise?
- Lowers motivation
- Decreases self-esteem
- Does not provide the exerciser a sense of success
What is Psyching Up?
- Dialog should include any techniques your clients currently use to get psyched up for other situations in his/her life, come up with a list of things that will help get them psyched up for exercise (keywords, imagery, specific food, music, etc)
What is Imagery?
- A form of stimulation that occurs in the mind (in relation to performance and participation, using past positive experiences are very helpful)
- Example: visualize performing with greater relaxation, better muscular/motor control
What is "Active Listening?" What does it require?
- An attitude and genuine interest in seeking a client's perspective and getting to know him/her.
- Get to know client, honor client's perspective, and build a relationship with client.
- Paying attention
- Eye contact
- Minimize distractions
- Provide feedback only after client has finished speaking