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A process by which a person exerts influence over other people and inspires, motivate and directs their activities to help achieve group or organisational goals.


Differentiate between leadership and management

Kotter argues that organisations need to deal with change stemming from business environments characterised by major, ongoing change.

To deal with change, organisations need leaders to provide a vision, communicating and obtaining support for the vision and motivating and inspiring people to follow the vision.

The result of ongoing change is that organisations become more complex. Managers need to deal with this complexity in their organisations.

To this end, they perform the management functions of planning organising and controlling to attain their organisations goals in an environment characterised by change.


**The Components of leadership






Power - the potential to influence behaviour, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to get people to do things they would not otherwise do.

Authority - the right of a manager to give commands to and demand action from employees

Responsibility - the obligation to achieve organisational goals by performing specific activities.

Delegation - assigning responsibility and and authority to people to achieve organisational goals.

Accountability - an evaluation of how well individuals meet their responsibilities.


Explain the trait theory

The early leadership studies focused much attention on the personal qualities that and characteristics of successful leaders. Tracks are the unique personal characteristics of a person and trait research focused on the characteristics of strong leaders


5 Leadership Traits

Integrity - a leaders honesty and truthfulness

Competence - a leaders technical and interpersonal knowledge

Consistency - a leaders reliability, predictability

Loyalty - a leaders willingness to protect another person

Openness - one can rely on the manager to tell the whole truth


Behavioural Leadership Theories

University of Iowa’s Leadership theories

Managers should move from autocratic leadership styles that limit employee participation to democratic employee centres styles to enhance employee participation, motivation and morale.

Ohio State University Studies

Consideration - a behaviour of leaders who show concern for subordinates and create a warm friendly relationship.

Initiating structure - a clear cut leader- employee role that establishes formal lines of communication

These are relatively independent and a leader can have both, one and not the other or none.

University of Michigan

Job centred leader behaviours and employee Contreras leader behaviour are distinct and in opposition to one another.


Contingency/ Situational approaches to leadership

LPC Theory

The path goal theory

Hersey and Blanchard’s theory

The underlying assumption of the approaches that there is not necessarily a one best style of leadership, but rather that it depends on the situation.


The least preferred coworker theory

This describes how the situation determines the relationship between leadership effectiveness and a trait measure called “the least preferred coworker” which measures whether a leader is task orientated or relationship orientated.

The LPC score is determined by asking the manager to select a coworker with whom he or she could work least well With adjectives such as friendly and unfriendly, cooperative and uncooperative.


LPC theory

The three situational criteria that organisations can manipulate to create a proper situational match with the behaviour orientation of the leader.

1. Leader-member relations is the degree to which the leader has the support and loyalty of employees, and the extent to which the relations with the employees are friendly and corporative.

2. Position power is the degree to which the leader has the authority to evaluate performance and administer rewards and punishments.

3. Task structure may range from structured to unstructured where each employs objectives and responsibilities are clearly defined to the degree to which the standard operating procedures exist To accomplish the task, a detailed description of the finished product or service, and the criteria to measure performance accurately


The path goal theory of leadership

4 leadership behaviours

Directive leadership behaviour

Supportive leadership behaviour

Participative leadership behaviour

Achievement orientated leadership behaviour