Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 1 Deck (39):
How was violence during the early colonial settlements?
violence was an integral part of the early colonial settlements and the conflict with the Native Americans
How did violence increase after the Civil War?
-acts of individuals and collective violence contributed through the expansion of the Western frontier
-feuds with other governments
-vigilante activities by groups like the KKK
Over _________ Americans have died from homicide since the early 1960s.
Over 800,000 Americans have died from homicide since the early ______s.
About _______ murders, ________ forcible rapes, ________ robberies, and over ________ aggravated assaults were known the police in 2011.
About 15,000 ________, 80,000 ________ _______, 350,000 ________, and over 750,000 _________ ________ were known the police in 2011.
a reported murder every ___ minutes
a rape every __ minutes
a robbery every ___ minutes
an aggravated assault every ___ seconds
a reported _______ every 36 minutes
a _____ every 6 minutes
a _______ every 1.5 minutes
an ________ ________ every 43 seconds
A violent crime is known to the police about every ___ seconds
Over ___% of all americans will be a victim of a violent crime (murder, rape, robbery, or serious assault) in their lifetime
_____ are present in about 50% of American households.
________ __________ remains a popular method of child discipline.
Fear of criminal victimization from a violent crime is a primary concern for many groups of American, especially _______ and _______ citizens
The results of national victimization surveys (NCVS) indicate that what groups of people are at higher risks of violent victimization?
-young people (18-30 years olds)
-persons with lower income
What is the difference between non-criminal and criminal homicides?
Non-criminal homicides- include deaths that involve a legal excuse or legal justification
Criminal homicides- involve murders and manslaughters in which the offender is considered legally culpable (blameworthy) for the crime
What type of homicides are considered non-criminal homicides?
What type of homicides are considered criminal homicides?
First Degree Murder
Second Degree Murder
Which type of homicide is this:
Wrongful conduct is wrong, but because the offender is suffering from some type of impairment, or other special circumstances he/she should not be held criminally responsible
Excusable homicides involve __________ _______, in which no criminal blame is attached to the killer.
_________ __________ involve unintentional killing, in which no criminal blame is attached to the killer.
Which type of homicide is this:
“wrongful conduct is right under the circumstances”
_________ _________ are an intentional killing sanctioned by law.
Justifiable homicides are an _________ ________ sanctioned by law.
What are some examples of justifiable homicides?
(1) the legal execution of a death sentence by authorized state officials
(2) the killing of a fleeing felon by a law enforcement officer
(3) homicides that occur in self-defense
“Castle Doctrine” is what type of homicide?
What is the “Castle Doctrine”?
gives homeowners the right to “stand your ground” in their homes and apply deadly force against an intruder who has intent to inflict seriously bodily harm to them
What is the difference between first and second degree murder?
First Degree Murder- willful, deliberate, premeditated killings with malice aforethought
Second Degree Murder- non-premeditated killings that result from an assault in which death of the victim was a distinct possibility
The killing of what types of individuals warrant as First Degree Murder?
a prison guard
What is the punishment for First Degree Murder?
death penalty or life imprisonment
What is “felony murder”?
homicides that occur during another felony
What is the punishment for Second Degree Murder?
prison sentences between 10 and 20 years
Which type of homicides are the most common in the United States?
What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter?
Voluntary Manslaughter-intentional killings that are accompanied by additional circumstances that mitigate the seriousness, but do not excuse the killings
Involuntary Manslaughter-unlawful killings of another person without intent and/or with reasonable care
Voluntary Manslaughter most commonly during the “_____ ___ ________”.
heat of passion
What type of punishment for Voluntary Manslaughter?
1-10 years of prison
What conditions must be present for victim provocation, in a voluntary manslaughter, to warrant a reduced charge?
(1) the provocation must cause rage or fear in a reasonable person
(2) there shouldn’t by any “cooling time” for the offender’s passions to subside
What type of punishment for Involuntary Manslaughter?
less than 5 years, with fine and probation
What is the difference between aggravated and simple assaults?
Aggravated Assaults- involve deliberate and serious physical injuries to another or cases in which a weapon is used regardless of injury
Simply Assaults- typically involve minimal or minor physical injury and no external weapon