Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 1 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 1 Deck (39):
1

How was violence during the early colonial settlements?

violence was an integral part of the early colonial settlements and the conflict with the Native Americans

2

How did violence increase after the Civil War?

-acts of individuals and collective violence contributed through the expansion of the Western frontier
-feuds with other governments
-vigilante activities by groups like the KKK

3

Over _________ Americans have died from homicide since the early 1960s.

800,000

4

Over 800,000 Americans have died from homicide since the early ______s.

1960s

5

About _______ murders, ________ forcible rapes, ________ robberies, and over ________ aggravated assaults were known the police in 2011.

15,000
80,000
350,000
750,000

6

About 15,000 ________, 80,000 ________ _______, 350,000 ________, and over 750,000 _________ ________ were known the police in 2011.

murders
forcible rapes
robberies
aggravated assaults

7

a reported murder every ___ minutes
a rape every __ minutes
a robbery every ___ minutes
an aggravated assault every ___ seconds

36
6
1.5
43

8

a reported _______ every 36 minutes
a _____ every 6 minutes
a _______ every 1.5 minutes
an ________ ________ every 43 seconds

murder
rape
robbery
aggravated assault

9

A violent crime is known to the police about every ___ seconds

26

10

Over ___% of all americans will be a victim of a violent crime (murder, rape, robbery, or serious assault) in their lifetime

50%

11

_____ are present in about 50% of American households.

Guns

12

________ __________ remains a popular method of child discipline.

corporal punishment

13

Fear of criminal victimization from a violent crime is a primary concern for many groups of American, especially _______ and _______ citizens

women
senior

14

The results of national victimization surveys (NCVS) indicate that what groups of people are at higher risks of violent victimization?

-young people (18-30 years olds)
-males
-city residents
-ethnic/racial minorities
-persons with lower income

15

What is the difference between non-criminal and criminal homicides?

Non-criminal homicides- include deaths that involve a legal excuse or legal justification

Criminal homicides- involve murders and manslaughters in which the offender is considered legally culpable (blameworthy) for the crime

16

What type of homicides are considered non-criminal homicides?

excusable homicides
justifiable homicides

17

What type of homicides are considered criminal homicides?

First Degree Murder
Second Degree Murder
Voluntary Manslaughter
Involuntary Manslaughter

18

Which type of homicide is this:

Wrongful conduct is wrong, but because the offender is suffering from some type of impairment, or other special circumstances he/she should not be held criminally responsible

excusable homicides

19

Excusable homicides involve __________ _______, in which no criminal blame is attached to the killer.

unintentional killing

20

_________ __________ involve unintentional killing, in which no criminal blame is attached to the killer.

Excusable homicides

21

Which type of homicide is this:

“wrongful conduct is right under the circumstances”

justifiable homicides

22

_________ _________ are an intentional killing sanctioned by law.

Justifiable homicides

23

Justifiable homicides are an _________ ________ sanctioned by law.

intentional killing

24

What are some examples of justifiable homicides?

(1) the legal execution of a death sentence by authorized state officials
(2) the killing of a fleeing felon by a law enforcement officer
(3) homicides that occur in self-defense

25

“Castle Doctrine” is what type of homicide?

Justifiable Homicides

26

What is the “Castle Doctrine”?

gives homeowners the right to “stand your ground” in their homes and apply deadly force against an intruder who has intent to inflict seriously bodily harm to them

27

What is the difference between first and second degree murder?

First Degree Murder- willful, deliberate, premeditated killings with malice aforethought
Second Degree Murder- non-premeditated killings that result from an assault in which death of the victim was a distinct possibility

28

The killing of what types of individuals warrant as First Degree Murder?

police officers
a child
a prison guard
fellow prisoner

29

What is the punishment for First Degree Murder?

death penalty or life imprisonment

30

What is “felony murder”?

homicides that occur during another felony

31

What is the punishment for Second Degree Murder?

prison sentences between 10 and 20 years

32

Which type of homicides are the most common in the United States?

Voluntary Manslaughter

33

What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary manslaughter?

Voluntary Manslaughter-intentional killings that are accompanied by additional circumstances that mitigate the seriousness, but do not excuse the killings

Involuntary Manslaughter-unlawful killings of another person without intent and/or with reasonable care

34

Voluntary Manslaughter most commonly during the “_____ ___ ________”.

heat of passion

35

What type of punishment for Voluntary Manslaughter?

1-10 years of prison

36

What conditions must be present for victim provocation, in a voluntary manslaughter, to warrant a reduced charge?

(1) the provocation must cause rage or fear in a reasonable person
(2) there shouldn’t by any “cooling time” for the offender’s passions to subside

37

What type of punishment for Involuntary Manslaughter?

less than 5 years, with fine and probation

38

What is the difference between aggravated and simple assaults?

Aggravated Assaults- involve deliberate and serious physical injuries to another or cases in which a weapon is used regardless of injury

Simply Assaults- typically involve minimal or minor physical injury and no external weapon

39

What is the difference between assault and battery?

Assault- the threat of harm and the ability to carry it out

Battery- the act of harmful or offensive touching of another

Decks in Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology Class (47):