Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 2 Deck (37):
How have crime Rates for Homicide and Aggravated Assault Over Time?
(1) homicide rates decreased prior to and during World War II, increased in this immediate post-war period
(2) rose sharply from the 1960s to mid 1970s
(3) declined briefly in the early 1980s
(4) generally increased until 1993
(5) decreased until 2000
(6) remained relatively low and stable between 2000 and 200
What are the explanations for how homicide and assault rates have changed over time?
(1) “legitimation of violence” hypothesis
(2) relative deprivation
(3) the “baby boom”
(4) changes in routine activities and lifestyles (since World War II)
(5) increased gang activity and drug trafficking in central cities
Who created the “legitimation of violence” ?
Dane Archer and Rosemary Gartner
How does the “legitimation of violence” explain the changes in homicide and assault rates over time?
war legitimizes violence and these pro-violence values during wartime are carried over to post-war periods
What is relative deprivation?
higher homicide rates occur in periods of growing economic prosperity because conditions are improving for some groups but not for others
Under relative deprivation, who are the “left behind” and why do they participate in crime?
The "left behind" are the young, poor, and others who are socially disadvantaged.
They become angry and frustrated and as a result they engage in criminal acts
When did the “baby boom” occur?
occurred after World War II
What is the “baby boom”?
many parents had kids in the years immediately after WWII war and their children became 18-24 years olds in the 1960s
How has changes in routine activities and lifestyles increased homicide and assault rates?
this has made people more visible/accessible, more attractive, and less protected from predatory criminals
What are the particular lifestyle changes that make people more susceptible to homicide and assault?
(1) spending more time in risky public activities away from the protection of one’s home
(2) a rise in the proportion of people living alone
(3) increases in the production of portable and expensive consumer goods
Why does police data on homicide and aggravated assault underestimate the actual prevalence of these forms of violence?
(1) many of these crimes are not reported or known to the police (the “Dark Figures” of crime)
(2) some police departments have recorded aggravated assaults as “simple assaults” or “domestic violence”
In the case of homicide, why might undercounting of these crimes occur?
(1) some killings may be misclassified as accidents or deaths by “natural cause”
(2) many cases of “missing persons” are probably homicides that lack any physical evidence to support this lethal classification by the police
_________ states have the highest murder and aggravated assault rates.
Southern states have the highest _______ and ________ _______ rates.
__________ has the lowest murder and aggravated assault rates.
Northeastern has the lowest _______ and __________ _______ rates.
_________ states are below national averages for murder and aggravated assault rates.
Midwestern states are below national averages for _______ and __________ ________ rates.
_______ states are slightly below the national average for both murder and aggravated assault.
Western states are slightly below the national average for both _______ and __________ _______.
Both homicide and assault rates are higher in _______ ____________ areas than in suburban and rural areas.
What is the correlation of violent crime rates and urban areas?
(1) high unemployment
(2) rapid population turnover
(3) overcrowding and housing decay
(4) high ethnic diversity
(5) substandard schools
(6) high rates of single parent households
(7) high income inequality
How does social disorganization theory, explain the correlation of violent crime rates and urban areas?
this is because they are indicative of low economic opportunity, the diversity of values and language, and the low supervision of youth
What is the offender profile for someone who commits homicide and aggravated assault?
(2) persons under 25 years old
Males are about ___% of the ________ arrestees.
Males are ___% of those arrested for ___________ _______
Why do males have a higher rate being offenders of homicide and aggravated assault?
(1) gender differences in the externalization/internalization of aggression
(2) biological factors
(3) the use of aggression as a means of enhancing one’s status and masculine identity
Persons under 25 years old are ___% of the _________ arrestees.
Why do persons under 25 have high risks of (offending) homicide and assaults?
(1) low self-control
(2) high impulsivity
(3) the weakened bonds and attachments to social institutions
African-Americans are ___% of all _________ arrestees.
African-Americans are ___ of persons arrested for __________ ________.
Why is there a disproportionate representation of African Americans among homicide and assaults?
(1) greater police patrolling in minority communities and selective arrests of Blacks within these areas
(2) greater economic disadvantage in minority communities
(3) racial differences in the internalization and externalization of aggression
(4) “street justice” as a means to circumvent the restrictions of slavery and racism
Why is there a higher distribution of homicide arrestees among lower class individuals?
(1) “calls for service” and “hot spots” are often located in lower class neighborhoods
(2) the vast majority of criminal defendants for felony charges are indigent
(3) presentness investigation reports (PSI) conducted to determine the appropriate punishment for convicted offenders often reveal the economic marginality of many of these offenders
___% of homicide victims are males and the remaining ___% are females.
78% of homicide victims are ______ and the remaining 22% are ________.
A majority of male victims are killed by ______