Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 4 Flashcards Preview

Criminal Justice 270- Intro to Criminology > Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 19: Violent Crime in U.S. History (Homicide and Aggravated Assault) Part 4 Deck (39):
1

What are offense attributes that create higher homicide and aggravated assault rates?

(1) Weapon Use
(2) Co-Offenders and Multiple Victims
(3) Alcohol/Drug Use

2

Homicide rates per weapon:
-___% of the homicides were committed with a firearm
-___% of homicides involved knives or cutting instruments
-__% of homicides involved personal weapons
-___% were committed with other dangerous weapons or by an unknown type of weapon

68%
13%
6%
13%

3

Homicide rates per weapon:
-68% of the homicides were committed with a _______
-13% of homicides involved _______ or _______ ___________
-6% of homicides involved ________ ________
-13% were committed with ______ dangerous weapons or by an _________ type of weapon

firearm
knives
cutting instruments
personal weapons
other
unknown

4

What are the aggravated assault rates per weapon?

About 21% of aggravated assaults involve firearms, knives and other cutting instruments

5

Men are more likely to use _____ in homicides than women.

guns

6

The use of knives and other sharp objects is more common among _______ offenders

female

7

What are the homicide rates, by age?

(fatal) victim is a teenager 84%, pre-teens 24%

8

What are the most prevalent circumstances of gun homicides?

“gangland killings” (95% are done with guns)
juvenile gang killings (91%)
narcotic/drug slayings (82%)
robbery homicides (75%)

9

What are several properties of firearms that explain their prevalence as lethal weapons for homicide?

(1) guns equalize strength differences by gender and size

(2) it’s easier to commit lethal injuries with guns because other methods may require greater rage to inflict multiple blows to kill an assault victim

10

In the cases of multiple victims homicides the offender is?

(1) a male family member (who kills his wife and kids)

(2) a disgruntled employee (who kills co-workers in his workplace)

11

How often does co-offending/multiple victimization occur?

Multiple victims are found in about 10% of homicide situations and about 20% of homicides involving multiple offenders

12

True or False: The typical homicide and aggravated assault involves only one victim and offender

True

13

True or False: Many of the offenders who kill multiple family members later commit suicide

True

14

What is the theory of social facilitation?

the presence of co-offenders facilitates/encourages violence because these other people provide both subtle and direct pressure on individuals to commit violent assaults to “man up” and/or affirm their masculine identify

15

How have illicit drug and alcohol have also been linked to criminal violence?

(1) the sellers and buyers of illicit drugs competed with other drug distributors and violence was a primary means of reducing this competition

(2) drug sellers have been violently attacked by buyers who are tying to steal their drug supplies or cash to support their own drug habits

(3) the group context of street-level drug and alcohol usage in many metropolitan areas are the types of situational contexts in which a rather trivial comment or personal affront may quickly escalate into a violent attack

16

Why does alcohol have a high impact on violent behavior?

its adverse influence on cognitive reasoning and the weakening of social inhibitions

17

About ___% of the persons in prison for murder or assaults were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or both at the time of their offense.

50%

18

About 50% of the persons in prison for _______ or ________ were under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or both at the time of their offense

murder
assaults

19

High rates of _______ use among the victims of lethal violence.

alcohol

20

According to national UCR data, what is the ranking of the primary context or circumstance underlying homicides?

(1) Arguments
(2) Robbery
(3) Juvenile Gang Killings
(4) Narcotic Drug Law Violations
(5) Alcohol-Related Brawls

21

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the victim makes an opening move that is consider by the offender as an offense to “face”

Stage 1

22

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
action by the victim typically involves a direct verbal expression, the refusal to cooperate or comply with the offender’s request, or a nonverbal, physical gesture

Stage 1

23

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
this initial action by the victim fits with other people’s research on “victim precipitated” crime

Stage 1

24

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the offender interprets the victim’s previous move as personally offensive

Stage 2

25

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the offender learns the meaning of the victim’s move form inquiries made of the victim or audience

Stage 2

26

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the apparent affront could evoke different responses, but in these lethal transactions it initiates a retaliatory move aimed at restoring face and demonstrating strong character

Stage 3

27

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
most of these retaliatory moves begin with the offender issuing a verbal or physical challenge

Stage 3

28

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the victim and offender come to a “working” agreement with the proffered definition of the situation as one of violence

Stage 4

29

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the working agreement to use violence is reached by the victim’s direct actions or by the offender’s misinterpretation of their actions

Stage 4

30

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the offender and, in many cases, the victim become committed to battle

Stage 5

31

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
both parties have stake in this battle

Stage 5

32

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
commitment to battle is enhanced by the available of weapons to support verbal threats and challenges

Stage 5

33

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the actual physical interchange is often brief and precise

Stage 5

34

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the transaction terminates once the victim has fallen

Stage 6

35

Which stage of Luckenbill’s situational transactions in homicides is this:
the offender either flees the scene, remains voluntarily, or they are physically subdued by audience members until the police arrive

Stage 6

36

What are “Burning Bed” Situations?

not immediate but imminent threat in domestic violence

37

Why don’t many assaults today result in homicides?

advanced medical care and rapid emergency response

38

What are the consequences of medical advances when it comes to homicide rates?

fewer homicides even though criminal intent may be similar over time

39

Does the availability of guns create more or less crime?

Both.
More Guns= Less Crime because armed citizens deter crime.
More Guns=More Crime because this increased the availability of guns to criminals.

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