Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (25)
A problem due to the difficulty in setting agreed-on lower- and upper-limit legal age definitions, resulting in substantial ambiguity with respect to age definitions.
Definitions holding that those whose behavior violates statutes applicable to them are offenders whether or not they are officially labeled.
Definitions holding that only those who have been officially labeled by the courts are offenders.
The research division of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and the oldest juvenile justice research group in the U.S.
National Center for Juvenile Justice
Organization that publishes data on abuse and neglect of children.
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect
Organization that publishes data on abuse and neglect of children in tandem with a number of other agencies.
National Children's Advocacy Center
Data derived from annual household surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics in collaboration with the U.S. Census Bureau. It is usually made twice annually and asks approximately 40,000 to 50,000 respondents whether members of their households have been victims of crimes.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
System developed to collect information on each single crime occurrence. Under this reporting system, policing agencies report data on "offenses known to the police" (offenses reported to or observed by the police) instead of only those "offenses cleared by arrest," as was done in the original crime reporting process of the Uniform Crime Reports (UCRs)
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
Offenses reported to or observed by the police.
Offenses known to the Police
Organization that coordinates national policy for preventing juvenile delinquency and victimization. Established under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, it conducts independent research, assists experts and agencies in program evaluation, and recommends initiatives for delinquency prevention and treatment.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)
Observations provided by researchers that help in better assessing the extent of unofficial or hidden delinquency, abuse, and neglect.
Police Observational Studies
Studies constructed to resolve the false dichotomy between labeled and nonlabeled juveniles. They use self-reported data that inquire about responents' own criminal behavior within a specified period.
Reports published annually by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) providing a compilation of arrest data and categorizing offenses as Part I or Part II offenses. They are often referred to by the acronym UCRs. Police agencies submit information on clearances (arrest data) to the FBI annually. The FBI then constructs a statistical profile of crime in the U.S. based on these arrest data.
Uniform Crime Reports (UCRs)
Methods for determining just how much crime or delinquency remains hidden from official measures of such behavior.
Unofficial Sources of Data
Survey research that is derived from data provided by victims of crime.
Victim Survey Research
Data on offenses known to Law Enforcement are reported through the ______.
Strict ______ definitions hold that only those who have been officially labeled by the courts are offenders.
It would be safe to say that legal definitions differ from time to time and from place to place.
Official statistics on abused and neglected children are only available from a limited number of sources.
In the U.S., the minimum age of juvenile court jurisdiction is standardized by the National Juvenile Court Center.
Information contained in self-report studies by juveniles paralleled information from victim survey research at the adult level; consequently, researchers have concluded that the ______.
Majority of delinquent acts are not part of official statistics.
_______ are probably the single most accurate source of information on the actual illegal acts of young people.
Behavioral definitions assess the extent and nature of juvenile offenses about as accurately as legal definitions.
______ definitions hold that those whose behavior violates statutes applicable to them are offenders whether or not they are officially labeled.