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Flashcards in CHAPTER 2 Deck (37):
1

Simple Apprehension

first act of intellect by which it knows the essence or nature of the thing without affirming of denying anything about it.

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Idea

mental image of a thing

is the mental product of the apprehension

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Apprehension

is the beginning of knowledge.

It is when we have an understanding or an idea of things that we can say we know.

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Abstraction

the process by which the intellect strips the object of its non-essential qualities, retains the essential ones, and forms them into one image, which is the idea.

it is an important concept in the theory of knowledge of Aristotle and St. Thomas for it explains why the intellect could know a material object

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Logical Properties of Idea/Term

Comprehension and Extension

Comprehension - is the sum total of all the attributes of thought-elements which constitute the idea. It is the meaning, the signification, the thought-content or connotation of the idea.

Extension - is the sum-total of all the individuals, things or beings or groups to which the idea can be applied. It expresses denotation or the application of the idea to different individuals or things.

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Comprehension

is the sum total of all the attributes of thought-elements which constitute the idea. It is the meaning, the signification, the thought-content or connotation of the idea.

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Extension

is the sum-total of all the individuals, things or beings or groups to which the idea can be applied. It expresses denotation or the application of the idea to different individuals or things.

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Classification of Terms

According to Significance or Meaning
and
According to Application or Extension

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According to Significance or Meaning

Univocal
Equivocal
Analogous

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Univocal

is a term that is used in an identical sense.

Expresses only one meaning or sense when applied to several objects.

(the term has no other possible meanings other than itself)

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Qeuivocal

is a term that expresses two or more different or unrelated meanings.

They may be externally the same but different in sense,

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Analogous

is a term that expresses a meaning that is partly different and partly the same, or meanings that are related.

a. proportion (unlike objects. but there is resemblance bet. them) idioms and metaphors
b. Attribution (when the term is used in an absolute sense in one thing and then attributed in another things because of some intrinsic relation with the 1st)

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According to Application or Extension

Singular
Universal
Particular
Collective

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Singular Term

one that applies to only one individual.

MVP, triangle, biggest planet, Jupited

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Universal Term

one that is applied distributively to all the individuals or objects in a class or to the class itself.

All, Every, No, Each, None

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Particular Term

is one that applies to only a partt of the extension of the universal.

Few, Some, Many, Several, most or majority.

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Collective

one that applies to a collective idea. It represents a group or class but does not apply distributively to the individuals in the class or group

the family, a herd, and org

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Definition

is a statement which explains what a thing is

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Definition (Etymology)

Definire - means to lay down

to lay down the markers or limits

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Kinds Of Definition

Nominal (Synonym, Etymology)
Real [Essential, Descriptive (Distinctive, Genetic, Causal)]

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Nominal Definition

simply explains the meaning of a term or word.
(Synonym, Etymology)

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Synonym

an equivalent term or word

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Etymology

the origin or root of the word

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Real Definition

explains what a thing or subject is. It explain the nature of the object by giving its properties, characteristics, qualities or features.

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Essential Definition

explains the very nature of the object by giving its proximate genus and specific difference

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Proximate Genus

consist of essential elements

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Specific Difference

is the distinctive element which distinguishes it from others

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Descriptive Definition

explains what a thing or object is by giving the positive but non-essential features of the object.

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Distinctive Definition

giving the set of distinctive characteristics of an object or external features

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Genetic Definition

giving its origin or process of production

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Causal Definition

giving its efficient cause. i.e. that which produces a thing

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Popular Definition

based on the common knowledge or idea of people about a thing or object

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Scientific Definition

technical definitions of scientific terms

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Medical Definition

medical terms or procedures

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Legal Definition

legal concepts, procedures, using legal terms

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Lexical

definition given by the dictionary

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RULE of definition

Clear, Precise, Accurate, Positive

1. the definition must be clearer than the term being defined.
2. the definition must not contain the term being defined.
3. must be convertible with the term being defined
4. Must be an affirmative statement not negative whenever possible.