Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (34):
The scientific study of the nervous system
What are neurons
cells that are highly specialized to receive and transmit information from one part of the body to another.
Communicate information from the environment to the central nervous system
Communicate information from the central nervous system to the muscles
Communicate information from one neuron to another; basic unit
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cell’s nucleus; also called the soma.
Multiple short ﬁbers that extend from the neuron’s cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
The long, ﬂuid-ﬁlled tube that carries a neuron’s messages to other body areas.
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
6 important neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA, endorphins
Two major communication systems
Nervous system and endocrine system
Peripheral nervous system
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
Somatic nervous system
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles
Specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship be-tween behavior and bodily processes and systems; also called biopsychology or psychobiology
Largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes; also called the cerebrum
The wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain; which contains the most sophisticated brain centers
Four lobes of the cerebral cortex
Temporal, occipital, parietal,frontal
Function of the temporal lobe
Receives auditory information
Function of the occipital lobe
Where visual information is received
Function of the parietal lobe
Involved in processing bodily, or somatosensory information, including touch, temperature, pressure and information from receptors in muscles and joints
Function of the frontal lobe
Largest lobe; involved in planning, initiating and executing voluntary movements
Parasympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body’s physical resources.
Sympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
The development of new neurons
The brain’s ability to change function and structure
The brain’s ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas
The brain’s ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental inﬂuences.
A region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation.
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.