Chapter 2/3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2/3 Deck (49):
1

Agricultural

The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture

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Agricultural revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

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Arithmetic density

The total number of people divided by the total land area

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Census

A complete enumeration od a population

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Crude birth rate(CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

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Crude death rate(CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society

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Demographic transition

The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population

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demography

the scientific study of population characteristics

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Dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 compared to the number of people active in the labor force

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doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

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Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

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Epidemiologic transition

Distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition

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Epidemiology

Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseased that are prevalent among a population at a special time and are produced by some social causes not generally present in the affected locality

14

Industrial Revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

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Infant Mortality rate (IMR)

The total number of deaths in a year among infant under 1 year old for every 1000 live births in a society

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Life expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to love, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.

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Medial revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.

18

Natural increase rate(NIR)

The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate

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Overpopulation

The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a descent standard of living

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Pandemic

Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

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Physiological density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture

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Population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex

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Sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population

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Total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children a women can have throughout her childbearing years

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Zero Population Growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

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Brain drain

Large-scale emigration by talented people

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Chain migration

Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there

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Circulation

Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis

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counterurbanization

Net Migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries

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Emigration

Migration from a location

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Floodplain

The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends

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Forced migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors

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Guest workers

Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe , usually from southern and eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.

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Immigration

Migration to a new location

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Internal Migration

Permanent movement within a particular country

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International Migration

Permanent movement from one country to another

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Interregional Migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another

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Intervening obstacle

An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration

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Intraregional Migration

Permanent movement with one one region of a country

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Migration

Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location

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Migration transition

Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition

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Mobility

All types of movement from one location to another

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Net Migration

The difference between the level of immigration an the level of emigration

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Pull Factor

Factor that induces people to move to a new location

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Push Factor

Factor that induces people to leave old residences

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Quotas

In reference to migration, laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year

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Refugees

People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion

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Unauthorized immigrants

People who enter a country without proper documents

49

Voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice