Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Child Psych > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (66):
0

Chromosome

We have 46
23 pairs
Contain genes
Paired
Sex cells not paired

1

DNA

Deoxyribose nucleic acid
Long strand of cell material
Stores and transfers genetic information
Info in all life forms
NUCLEOTIDES

2

Gene

Segment of DNA with instructions for growth a f function of organism

3

Genome

All DNA of an organism
Hereditary info of human

4

Genotype

Organisms unique set of genetic info

5

Phenotype

Physical characteristics from genotype
Ex musical ability need environment to acquire it

6

Dominant vs recessive

The pattern of inheritence where chromosome pairs have 1 dominant and 1 recessive gene

The dominant I'd expressed

7

Alelle

A pair of chromosomes
With two different forms

Dom or recessive dD

8

Incomplete dominance

Where phenotype is influenced by the dominant and the recessive gene

Ex sickle cell

9

Polygenic inheritance

Phenotype expressed based off of multiple genes interacting
Ex weight height color personality intellgence disease susceptibility

10

Regulator gene

Directs other genes

11

Gene therapy

Treat genetic disorders via gene replacement

12

Sex chromosomes

XX or XY
Determined if make or female
Y is smaller
Father determines if son or not

13

Myths relating to pregnancy

Moms age and month
Both same girl
Opposites boy

West- carry high
Girl (vs low=boy)

Sweet girl
Sour salty boys

Left breast larger girl

14

X-linked inheritance

Males- one x
More susceptible to recessive disorders on X chromosome

Females 2X
One dominant one recessive

Where recessive characteristics are expressed because it is on males X chromosome

15

Nature vs nurture

What influences development genes or environment

16

Behavior genetics

The study of human development aiming to identify the extent to which genes influence behavior

By

Comparing people who share different amounts of genes

17

Monozygotic twins
Vs
Dizygotic twins

Mz- same genotype identical

Dz- two ova not one fraternal

Use of adoption and comparing twins allows behavior geneticists to study this

18

Heritability

Statistic establishing the extent that genes are responsible for differences among people within a population (0-1.00)

.5- pop gets iq via genes
.4-.5- personality via genes

*estimated bit exact
How much environment allows genes to be expressed

19

Concordance rates

% of degree of similarity between family members in their phenotype

0-100%

Skitzophrenia- MZ-50% DZ-18%

Used with adoptive families

20

Epigenesis

In Development the continued bidirectional interaction of genes and environment

Bidirectional interactions
-genetic activity response to environment influence
-develop not purely gene expression
Ex menstruation 11-16
Outside forces malnutrition weight loss affect it

21

Reaction range

The range of possible development established via genes and environment determines where development takes place in that range

Ex
Height
Affected by nutrition and disease

22

Theory of genotype -> environment effects

Theory that genes influence the environment er experience

We create our own environments to a considerable extent

Actual genetic influence and environment is hard to sort because genes influence environment

23

Type 1 of genotype -> environment effects

Passive genotype -> environment
Biological parents and families
That provide genes and environment

Ex develop art skill

24

Type 2 of genotype -> environment effects

Evocative genotype -> environment effects

Inherited characteristics evoke responses from those in environment around them

Respond differently to various people

Assuming characteristics are partially genetically based

25

Type 3 of genotype -> environment effects

Active genotype -> environment effects
Niche picking
Drawn to environment that matched inherited abilities

Ex fast kid
Try out for track

26

Gametes

Sex cells
No chrom pairs
Ovary to egg to ovum
Testes and sperm

Produced via meiosis

27

Ovum

Mature egg

Created every 28 days

28

Meiosis

Process to make sex cells
Like double mitosis
With crossing over
1 via females and 3 polar bodies
4 malen
Creation process for gametes

29

Mitosis

Reproduction of cells
1 cell into 2
46 splits into 23
Cross over occurs in mitosis 2 during meiosis

Males: puberty produce everyday
Females: born with 1 million ova only 40,000 by puberty

Ovum- follicle- period-> nutrients and ovum
Egg 2,000x bigger than sperm
Follicle provides c

30

Follicle

During menstruationit is the ovum plus cells that surround and provide it with nutrients

Cytoplasm provides nutrients for first two weeks

31

Zygote

Where sperm head reaches nucleus of ovum

Pairing up of chromosomes occur

Unless dz twins- 2 eggs fertilized

32

Germinal period

First period
1-2 weeks

Zygote turns into blastocyst

Week 2-
Implantation- it is embedded into the uterus

FOLLICLE- begins producing hormones to build up blood lining to nourish blastocyst

Umbilical chord connects fetus to placenta

Chromosome problems- prevent blastocyst from implanting

33

Blastocyst

Ball of 100 cells
1 week after contraception
-germinal period

2 parts:

Trophoblast: structure of nourishment and protection
Outer layer

Week 2:
Amnion develops- fluid filled membrane that protects developing organism
Placenta- between uterine wall and embryonic disk
Gatekeeper of mom and fetus
Protects fetus from wages and bacteria in moms blood
Produces hormones that keep blood in uterine lining
Cause breasts to produce milk

Part 2:
Embryonic disk
Will be the embryo

34

Embryonic period

3-8 weeks

Organ system develops

Week3- embryonic disk
1) ectoderm- becomes skin hair nails sensory organs and nervous system

2) mesoderm- muscles bones reproductive circulatory system

3) endoderm- becomes the digestive system and the realities system

Nervous system- develops the fastest

Fourth week- head shape eyes nose mouth ears start to form
Heart beat

5-8
Fingers and toes
Placental and umbilical chord functional
Digestive system
Liver

Embryo
1/30 of an oz
1 inch

35

Neural tube

Formed from ectoderm

Becomes the spinal chord and the brain

Once neural tube is formed it pto duces neurons like crazy
250,000 per day

36

Fetal period

9 weeks until birth

Month 3 genitals form

Hormones released

Boys become more active

Heart beat via stethoscope

End of trimester 1

37

2nd trimester

Within fetal period

4th month mom feels kicks

Sound response

Vernix and lanugo develop on the skin
Slimy layer to cover skin and hair that allows vernix to stick to skin

Week 6 viability- determine if can surviv outside of womb
50% survival rate
14% mental disabilities
12% cerebral palsy

Weight gain

38

Third trimester

Lungs are immature
Brain is even worse


Weight gain +5 Lbs

Brain develop last two months

28th week sleep wake cycle of normal
infant

Read cat in hat preference putside of womb

39

Prenatal care in foreign countries

Africa- tree oil on belly
Mother in law has to behave
Avoid Palm wine
Can't eat antelope meat
Husband can't kill in fear of killing pregnant animal

Bali no hot foods
Can take food from impure
Need a charm to protect against witches

40

Midwife

Assistant in prenatal care and birth

Can probe where fetus is using massage and usually can flip around baby
"Inversion to flip"

41

Science and prenatal care

Pre pregnancy- Med exam to find birth related problems
Avoid drugs

During-
Diet exercise
Teratogens
Check up


42

Prenatal evaluation

99% of maternal infant deaths occur in developing countries

43

Diet and maternity

Need iron in diet

Need iodine in diet

Limit weight gain to 15 lbs

44

Exercise and maternity

Exercise

Do aero use

Kegel exercises

Aerobics if typically don't exercise

Nothing strenuous

45

Teratogens

Behavior environment body conditions that can be damaging to development

46

Malnutrition

Teratogen

Most common worldwide

1/2 world rural so diet depends on the time of year

Nutrition

Need folic acid to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly

Obesity can cause heart problems spina bifida and cleft pallet

Prenatal nutrients prevent risks or reduce them

47

Infectious diseases

Aids hiv
(Acquired immune deficiency)

Stis

Can cause
Blindness
Deafness
Mental retardation
Abnormalities of the heart
Intestinal system
Genitals

Rubella less severe impacts

48

Alcohol

Fetal Alcohol spectrum disorder

In developed countries biggest problem

None is a safe amount

Face abnormal
Misshapen limbs
Cognitive problems
Heart probs
Memory deficit

FASD Increase risk for delinquencies drug and alcohol abuse and depression and other mental health problems

49

Tobacco

Smoking increase risks

Secondhand smoke

Problems through adolescencee

Leading cause of low birth weights in developed countries

Poor language skills
Problems in childhood
Heart function
Attention and memory problems
Behavior problems

50

Other teratogens

Drugs prescribed and others

Heroine coke
Cause phys cog and behavioral problems

Meds- acutane for acne cause damage to organs
Cold medicine

Pollution
Radiation
Caffeine

Stress
Socioeconomic status

51

Chromosomal disorders

Normally 46

Can have 45 or 47

Rare is 48 or 49

1 in 200 births have chromosome problems

2 types

Sex and 21st pair

52

Sex chrom disorders

XXY kilnefelters- weak muscle low sperm delayed language development

XO- turner- female is short no period sterile

XYY- accel phys growth normal testosterone some have learning delays

2:
Cognitive impact- Mental retardation
Learning disorder or speech impairment

Abnormality in development - underdeveloped testes and penis no ovulation

Hormone treatments can help

53

21st chrom

Downs

Facial impairment
Hearing
Heart
Social development
Brain volume decrease in early 20s

54

Prenatal age causing chrom defects

20 downs is 1 in 1000

45 downs is 1 in 30

Mother increase after 40

Father 5-10% of cases is the cause

55

Ultrasound

High speed waves directed to uterus

Bounce To view baby on screen

Help increase attachment before birth

Helpful with multiple fetuses

Families abort if female

56

Amniocentesis

Trigger miscarriage 1 in 300

100% accurate

Stick needle in placenta to get amniotic fluid to see cells around fetus guided via ultrasound

Determine genotype
(15-20 weeks)

Risk of problems
(35+)

57

Chronic villus sampling

Sample that analyzes the development it find genetic problems

Cells of umbilical chord
(5-10 weeks)


Guide via ultrasound

99% accurate

Tube in uterus to get cell sample

58

Genetic counseling

Analyze history and genotype a

See what is inherited

Infertility or miscarriage potential

Make informed decision

59

Infertility

Can't have baby after a year of sex without contraception

Why?
Poor swimmers
Ovulation
Drugs/alcohol
Too few
Poor quality sperm

60

Assisted reproductive technologies

Methods to overcome infertility

61

Artificial insemination

Inject sperm during ovulation

Most via donor

Simple most effective

70% success
Rate

62

Fertility drugs

Mimic activity of hormones provoking ovulation

Risk- blood clot kidney damage ovary issues

Simulate follicle development

10-25% multiple births

63

In Vitro fertilization

Remove ova and combine with sperm for fertilization

Few days zygote develops

Promising 2/3 to uterus

35% success rate

>10% in women over 40

64

Infertility stats

Infertility belt- malnutrition in central Africa 30% due to STIS

world rate 10-15%

Outside:
Divorce okay if so
Huge deal
Blame woman

Wife status is lowered

Son carries on traditions girl is not good in Asia and Africa

Midwife herbal remedies
Gods wrath- try to bring it down
Cameron- return a bride and want wealth paid back

65

Animacule

In head of sperm

Tiny human being

De graff

1677