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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (24):
1

Chromosomes

- structures that contain genetic material
- we have 23

2

DNA

the molecule that composes one chromosome and is the biochemical basis of heredity

3

gene

the biochemical instruction that is produced by a group of chemical compounds within a strand of DNA

4

genotype

a person's complete set of genes

5

phenotype

observable features that result from the interactions between a person's genes and the environment

6

behavioral genetics

study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences contribute to difference in traits

7

dizygotic twins

- two zygotes/fertilized ova
- most common

8

monozygotic twins

- one zygote that divides into two individuals
- share genes

9

twin studies

studies of twins, both identical and fraternal, reared apart and together

10

adoption studies

are adopted children more similar to biological parents or to adoptive parents?

11

family studies

studies of siblings with different degrees of genetic similarity and vary environments

12

3 stages of prenatal development

- zygote
- embryo
- fetus

13

conception

- once a month an ovum (female egg)
- moves through fallopian tube to uterus
- uterus is where baby develops during pregnancy
- if not fertilized it disintegrates and is flushed away with menstruation

14

zygote

- month 1
- fertilized egg reaches the uterus and attaches itself to the uterus
- cell multiplication begins
- internal organs and circulatory system begins to form
- cell division takes place at the end of two weeks
- heart begins to beat
- small bumps show beginnings of arms and legs.

15

embryo

- month 2
- all major organ systems develop
- placenta and umbilical cord develop
- amniotic fluid surrounds baby
- face and limbs take shape

16

fetus

- month 3 (longest period)
- nostrils, mouth, lips, teeth buds, and eyelids forms
- arms, legs, fingers and toes are almost complete
- all internal organs present - but aren't ready to function
- the genital organs can be recognized as male or female

17

lanugo

thick downy hair covering fetus

18

vernix

a protective coating that forms on baby's skin

19

mother's nutrition

- balanced diet essential
- proteins, vitamins, and minerals
- increase caloric intake 10-20%

20

Risk factors

- nutrition
- stress
- age
- teratogens

21

teratogen

- an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
- drugs, disease, environmental hazards.

22

fetal medicine

treating prenatal problems before births

23

genetic engineering

replacing defective genes with synthetic normal ones

24

infant mortality rate

percentage of infants who die before their 1st birthday