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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (36):
1

6-person concept

A concept that shows that
when two people are talking, there are actually six separate entities involved

2

ambiguous figures

Figures that are organized so that they can be viewed as more than one object due to the figure-ground contrast

3

closure

A law of organization that says that incomplete
figures tend to be closed or filled-in to represent a
whole object when we perceive them

4

devil effect

Occurs when a negative assessment of a person with respect to one central trait leads to the assumption of other negative traits, whether observed or not

5

empathy

Occurs when you put yourself in other people's frames of reference - try to walk in their shoes;
see the situation through their eyes

6

first impressions

A problem in perception where we cling to original impressions to such a degree that we fail to alter those impressions when new information is received

7

fundamental attribution error

The tendency to overes-
timate the role that a person’s character plays on behavior while underestimating the role of the situation

8

halo effect

Occurs when a positive assessment of a
person with respect to one central trait leads to the
assumption of other positive traits, whether
observed or not

9

impression management

The choices that we make about how we speak and behave in order to affect
what others think of us; the “face”or image that we present to a given person at a given time

10

interpretation

The process of attaching meaning to words, acts,or events in our environment and using the process to make predictions about future events or behaviors

11

laws of organization

Several ways the brain groups visual and vocal stimuli into patterns discovered by Gestalt psychologists. Some patterns include proximity, similarity, and closure

12

mindfulness

Deliberately paying attention (conscious
awareness) to your thought processes in a non - judgmental way. Used by communicators who do not respond instinctively but respond thoughtfully and think about what they are doing and recognize that
they are, at all times, making choices in how to encode and decode messages

13

organization

Discovering the recognizable patterns in
the stimulus and recoding them in a form that is sim-
ple enough to remember and use

14

perception

The process by which individuals become
aware of, organize, and interpret information received though their senses

15

perception checking

A verbal request for feedback to
determine whether your interpretation of someone’s behavior (based on something they said or a nonverbal response) is accurate

16

perceptual constancy

Looking for consistency between what we have experienced in the past and what we are experiencing in the present

17

physiological factors

A possible impairment of a sensory organ that can interfere with accurate perception of stimuli

18

projection

Our tendency to assume that others possess the similar traits, motivations, and reactions that we do

19

proximity

A law of organization that says that objects
that are close together tend to be grouped together when we perceive them; also, a design element for
visual aids that says that items relating to each other should be grouped closely together

20

psychological factors

Factors such as strong emotion, outlook on life (generated by one’s personality traits), present circumstances and moods that interfere with accurate perception of words, actions, or events

21

rational-emotive behavior

A cognitive behavior therapy that helps people change irrational self-talk beliefs that lead to distortions in how they view themselves, their competence, and their essential worthiness

22

reflected appraisal

The way we think others see us (reflected by their words or reactions) is often the way we see ourselves

23

reframing

Recasting or reframing a communication situ-
ation from the perspective of the communication
partner

24

selection

The process of choosing which stimulus, among all those present in the environment,to pay
attention to (also called selective attention). We are more likely to select a stimulus that is intense, that changes, that is novel or unexpected, and has the
potential to meet our needs

25

selective distortion

The process of an individual’s expectations or fears deceiving the senses into reporting a false stimulus as real

26

self-concept

A person’s overall understanding of who
he or she is

27

self-esteem

The degree to which a person sees self as
valuable and worthwhile

28

self-fulfilling prophecy

Occurs when you predict the outcome of an anticipated event, and then engage in the behaviors that insure that outcome

29

self-image

The picture we have of ourselves

30

self-reflection

An introspective process in which you have conscious awareness of what you are doing and
thinking at the moment as well as a fairly accurate
view of how others view you

31

self-serving bias

Occurs when we tend to accept responsibility for positive outcomes in our life, but deny responsibility for negative outcomes

32

self-talk

The intrapersonal messages we send to ourselves about ourselves

33

similarity

A law of organization that says that objects that look similar tend to be grouped together when we perceive them

34

stagnant thinking

The tendency to cling to a specific way of thinking

35

stereotyping

Making assumptions about people based
on our perceptions of the groups to which they belong

36

visual illusions

Something that fools the senses