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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (69):
1

biological psychology

links between biology and behavior

2

glial cells

support
nourish
strengthen
clean-up

3

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

4

dendrites

receive and conduct them toward the cell body

5

myelin sheath

fatty protection barrier that insulates the axon and helps send messages faster

6

axon

neuron extension that sends messages to other neurons or cells

7

action potential

a nerve impulse
*all or none response

8

threshold

level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

9

synapse

junction between the axon tip of a sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of a receiving neuron

10

re-uptake

neurotransmitters left in the synapse are reabsorbed

11

neurotransmitters

neuron-produced chemicals that cross synapses to carry messages to other neurons or cells that influence our behavior and emotions

12

dopamine

movement
learning
attention
emotion

13

serotonin

mood
hunger
sleep
arousal

14

norepinephrine

altertness
arousal

15

endorphines

pain
pleasure

16

opiate

chemical such as opium, morphine, or heroin, that depresses neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.

17

nervous system

the bodys speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the ventral and peripheral nervous system

18

nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

19

neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

20

neural networks

interconnected neurons form networks in the brain these networks are complex and modify with growth and experience

21

how many neurons does an adult have?

86 Billion

22

sensory neuron

incoming information from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system

23

motor neuron

outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

24

interneuron

within the brain and spinal chord; process info between sensory inputs and motor inputs

25

somatic nervous system

you have control over the skeletal muscles

26

autonomic nervous system

works whether you are aware or not
*sympathetic
*parasympathetic

27

sympathetic

arouses

28

parasympathetic

calms

29

relfex

a simple, automatic response to the sensory stimulus, such as the knee-her response

30

endocrine system

slower chemical communication system

31

pituitary gland

master gland under the influence of the hypothalamus

32

brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain
*automatic survival functions

33

medulla

base of the brainstem
*heartbeat and breathing

34

thalamus

top of the brainstem
*sensory messages through to the cortex

35

cerebellum

the "litttle brain" at the rear of the brainstem
*balance
*memory (muscle)

36

cerebral cortex

the bodies ultimate control and information processing center

37

corpus callosum

connects the two hemispheres and carries messages between them

38

EEG

records waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brains surface

39

PET

a view where brain lights

40

MRI

magnetic fields produce computer generated images

41

reticular formation

nerve network running through the brainstem and thalamus; plays an important role in controlling arousal

42

Limbic system

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres
*emotion and drive

43

amygdala

rage/fear/anger

44

hypothalamus

emotion and reward

45

hippocampus

memory formation or placement

46

frontal

motor

47

parital

somatosensory

48

occipital

visual

49

temportal

auditory

50

brocas

impaired speaking but can understand

51

wernicke's

impaired understanding but can speak

52

halluciniation

false sensory experience

53

association areas

higher mental functions

54

plasticity

the brains ability to change and develop

55

split brain

condition in which the brains' two hemispheres are isolated by cutting the fibers connecting them

56

consciousness

awareness of ourselves and our environment

57

selective attention

focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

58

in-attentional blindness

failure to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere (gorilla suit)

59

change blindness

failure to notice changes in the environment

60

circadian rhythm

internal biological clock; regular bodily rhythms

61

REM sleep

recurring sleep stage which vivid dream occur

62

alpha waves

relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state

63

delta waves

the large slow wave associated with deep sleep

64

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

65

narcolepsy

sleep disorder in which a person has uncontrollable sleep attacks sometimes lapsing directly into REM sleep

66

sleep apnea

stops breathing in sleep and wakes up to catch breath

67

manifest content

the remembered story line of a dream

68

latent content

the meaning of a dream

69

REM rebound

REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation