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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (62):
1

Smallest particle of an element

Adam

2

Anything that takes up space

Matter

3

Amount of matter that is present

Mass

4

Atoms Made up of subatomic particles

Protons, neutrons, electrons

5

Proton
Live __
Weigh __
Charge __

Live in nucleus, weigh one AMU, charge is plus one

6

Neutron
Live __
Weigh __
Charge __

Live in the nucleus, weight one AMU, charge is zero

7

Electron
Live __
Weigh __
Charge __

Live in the electron shell, weighs zero AMU, charge is -1

8

Mass number equals __

Protons + neutrons

9

Atomic number = __ = __ (in neutral atom)

Protons = electrons

10

Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Isotopes

11

Atom with a charge

Ion

12

Who founded the periodic table

Dimitri Mendeleev

13

__ naturally occurring element

91

14

__ elements essential to life

25

15

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen make up __ percent of us

96

16

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur make up __ percent of us

98

17

Electrons live in

Orbitals

18

The first shell holds __ electrons

2

19

Every shell after the first shell holds __ electrons

8

20

Outermost shell, determines chemical properties of that atom

Valence shell

21

Except for the first shell, all others shells are full with eight electrons

Octet rule

22

Atoms can __, __, __

Donate, accept, share

23

The more free hydrogen ions, the more __

Acidic

24

Two joined Atoms, can be the same or different Atoms

Molecule

25

Molecule that has two or more different Atoms – have to be different

Compound

26

Natural gas, byproduct of fermentation

Methane gas

27

__ has the number of each type of Adam

Chemical formula

28

How they are arranged

Structural formula

29

Two molecules that have the same chemical formula but different structural formula

Isomer

30

Example of isomers of each other

Acetone and propanol

31

In __ bonds electrons are transferred, transfers charge

Ionic

32

Bond formed by the attraction of opposite forces

Ionic bonds

33

Electrons shared between Atoms in outer shell

Covalent bonds

34

List of bonds weakest to strongest

Hydrogen, Ionic, single covalent, double covalent, triple covalent

35

There are two types of covalent bonds __ and __

Nonpolar and polar

36

Electrons are shared equally between Atoms

Nonpolar

37

Electrons are shared unequally between atoms (creates a partial charge)

Polar

38

The reason why life can exist

Water

39

Bonds between partial charges of molecules

Hydrogen bonds

40

Properties of water

High heat capacity, solvent, cohesive and adhesive, ice is less dense than water

41

Resists temperature changes, it is important to homeostasis

High heat capacity

42

Mixture of at least two substances, not easily separated

Solution

43

Part that is dissolved

Solute

44

Part that does the dissolving

Solvent

45

Dissolvable in water (polar molecules)

Hydrophilic

46

Will not dissolve in water

Hydrophobic

47

Sticking to the sides of whatever water is contained

Adhesion

48

Ability for molecules to stick together (in water)

Cohesion

49

Water cohesion is responsible for __

Surface tension

50

Water adhesion is responsible for __

Capillary action

51

The hydrogen concentration is greater than the hydroxide concentration in __

Acid

52

The hydrogen concentration is less than the hydroxide concentration in __

Basic (alkaline)

53

Changes stronger acid or base to weaker acid or base

Buffer

54

Measures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution or the hydrogen concentration

pH scale

55

PH scale range is from

0-14

56

__ is neutral

7

57

A pH less than seven is __

Acidic

58

A pH greater than seven is __

Basic

59

In the pH scale, each whole number represents a __ change

Tenfold

60

Human blood is a little

basic

61

Chemicals that keep pH within a normal limit, by taking up excess hydrogen or excess hydroxide

Buffers

62

Smallest amount of a type of matter that can't be broken down further by ordinary chemical means

Element