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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (282):
1

Bacteria produce a wide variety of distinctively flavored molecules as a result of

Fermentation

2

Bacteria not only produce a wide variety of foods and medicines, but they are also responsible for the following diseases

Strep, tetanus, tuberculosis, diphtheria, gonorrhea, and syphilis

3

What do saprophytes feed on?

Dead things

4

Pasteurization helps prevent disease because it

Kills bacteria

5

The chromosome-like part of a virus is surrounded by a(n)

Protein coat

6

What reproduces using hereditary material from the cell they are living in?

Viruses

7

Which of the following is not a common shape of bacteria?

Cube

8

When growing conditions are not right, many bacteria form

Endospores

9

Chemicals made by the body that help destroy viruses and harmful bacteria

Antibodies

10

The common cold is caused by

Viruses

11

Bacterial cells do not contain a

Nucleus

12

High temperatures are used to prepare canned foods because the heat

Kills bacteria in the food

13

Bacteria reproduce by

Binary fission

14

The process by which bacteria use enzymes to convert nitrogen gas into ammonia is called

Nitrogen fixation

15

The percent of Earth's atmosphere that is nitrogen gas is about

78% (Lightning is the first step in converting this gas into a usable form. It superheats the nitrogen gas changing it to Nitric Acid. Rainfall percolates this into the soil. Nitrogen fixating bacteria change this nitric acid to Nitrates which the plant uses like a fertilizer)

16

Chemicals used to kill bacteria on living things are

Antiseptics

17

Are cold sores caused by a virus or bacteria?

Virus

18

Compared to bacteria, viruses are

Smaller

19

The genetic material (DNA or RNA) inside a virus

Nucleic acid

20

Non-living particles that reproduce inside a living cell

Viruses

21

Layer that surrounds the virus, giving it an exact shape that will interlock with the host cell

Protein coat (capsid)

22

The cell in which a virus reproduces

Host cell

23

Has only RNA in its Nucleic acid

Retro virus

24

A rod-shaped bacterium is a

Bacillus

25

A virus that infects a bacterial cell

Bacteriophage

26

Bacteria reproduce by dividing into two equal cells in a process called

Binary fission

27

An external protective layer located on the outside of the cell wall of some bacteria is a

Capsule

28

A round bacterium is a

Coccus

29

Genetic information can be exchanged between bacteria in a process called

Conjugation

30

A structure in some bacteria that is resistant to adverse environmental factors in a(n)

Endospore

31

A protein substance that inhibits virus replication is

Interferon

32

Any organism that derives it's energy from dead or dying organisms is a(n)

Saprobe

33

Any organism or object that carries or transmits disease-causing organisms is a

Vector

34

A spiral or curve-shaped bacterium is a

Spirillum

35

A type of cell extension in bacteria is

Pili

36

Bacteria that require oxygen are called

Obligate aerobes

37

Organisms that do not use oxygen during respiration are

Obligate anaerobes

38

A relationship between two species with both deriving some benefit is called

Mutualism

39

Many viruses are quickly destroyed by the body's

White blood cells

40

Halophiles can be found in

Salty environments

41

Viruses are also called

Parasites

42

A protein substance that inhibits virus replication in an animal cell that has been invaded by a virus

Interferon

43

Bacteria are

Consumers

44

Viruses are found in

air, water, and soil

45

1st life form, survives under harsh conditions

Archaebacteria

46

Fixes nitrogen for plants

Eubacteria

47

Unicellular eukaryotes

Protista

48

Polio was an epidemic in 1950s

Hot Springs, Arkansas; FDR had it

49

When was the Salk Vaccine developed?

Jonas Salk started testing 1954; announced it was effective 1955

50

What happened in Rockaway Beach, NY during July?

Portugese man-of-war jellyfish stung two kids = surprises respiratory system

51

When and who developed the oral vaccine for polio?

Sabin developed his vaccine in 1970's (1961-1971)

52

What is MMR vaccine?

it's measles, mumps, and rubella
given at 15 months

53

What are mumps?

An inflammation of the salivary glands which you get at 15 months

54

What type of infection is shingles?

Lysogenic infection

55

What type of infection is cold sores/Herpes simplex?

Lysogenic infection

56

In 1976, as people were dying from Rickettsia, what was the result?

AIDs were beginning to get more attention for research after the gay complained in 1980

57

How is one HIV/AIDs positive?

When T4 helper cells go down to 200

58

How is influenza developed?

developed through guessing what will happen next year

59

Who is the vector for Yellow Fever/Malaria?

mosquitoes

60

What is Yellow Fever caused by?

virus

61

What is Malaria caused by?

caused by a protist called Plasmodium

62

What is the parasite that's on mosquitos that causes Malaria?

the parasites are found (as "sporozoites") in the female Anopheles mosquito's salivary glands (males don't bite, only fertilizes females)

63

What is the smallest bacteria?

Rickettsia

64

What happened in 1976 in PA?

Convention of American veterans who had respiratory problems with flu like symptoms. Found out there was a rickettsia in the water which spread through mist in the cooling tower on the roof of the hotel. Mist affected the older people, not so much the young.

65

Why would the epidemic recently found in Spain recently respond to antibiotics?

Because it is a bacterium

66

strep throat

problem caused by bacteria

67

making buttermilk or sauerkraut

helpful use of bacteria

68

removing water from food

way to control bacteria

69

cold sores, AIDS

problem caused by viruses

70

antiseptic

way to control bacteria

71

fire blight

problem caused by bacteria

72

decomposing dead material

helpful use of bacteria

73

pasteurization

way to control bacteria

74

taking antibiotic

way to control bacteria

75

tooth decay

problem caused by bacteria

76

What is the tobacco mosaic disease?

first virus to be discovered

77

Communicable diseases can be caused by bacteria or viruses

true

78

one way AIDS is spread is by sexual contact with an infected person

true

79

Pneumonia, strep throat, and tuberculosis are communicable diseases

true

80

Syphilis and gonorrhea (STD) are examples of diseases caused by bacteria

true

81

heating milk to kill bacteria

pasteurization

82

removing water from food

dehydration

83

using iodine, hydrogen peroxide, or alcohol

antiseptic

84

lowering the temperature of food

freezing

85

giving a vaccine

medicines

86

producing antibiotics

helpful bacteria

87

fire blight

problem caused by bacteria

88

vitamins in the intestines

helpful bacteria

89

rabies in dogs

problem caused by viruses

90

making linen and rope

helpful bacteria

91

flavors food

helpful bacteria

92

insulin production for humans

helpful bacteria

93

anthrax

problem caused by bacteria

94

cold sores, measles, polio, AIDS

problem causes by viruses

95

break down dead matter

helpful bacteria

96

What is strep?

a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and pain in the throat

97

Where is strep common?

in school age children

98

How is strep contagious?

spread through cough

99

What are strep symptoms?

Common symptoms include sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Rarely, complications can involve the heart or kidneys.

100

What are treatments for strep?

antibiotic- Penicillin
allergic = cephalexin, erythromycin and azithromycin
can also take Bacilli = injection; very painful

101

What happens if you don't treat strep?

subside in 4-5 days but might develop Scarlet fever

102

Who was someone who didn't treat strep?

Madeline Greenstein ended up having P.A.N.D.A.S.

103

What is leprosy/Hansen's disease?

a slowly developing, progressive disease that damages the skin and nervous system (contagious bacterial disease)

104

Who was the founder for leprosy?

Gerhard Armauer Hansen

105

What are the two forms of leprosy?

tuberculoid and lepromatous

106

How does leprosy spread?

Leprosy spreads through contact with the mucus of an infected person. (person to person)

107

What are the treatments for leprosy?

Treatment depends on severity; used to be Dapsone but today it's mixture of antibiotics

108

Why does leprosy have one of the slowest diving cells?

It takes 12-14 days to undergo one cell division

109

What are the symptoms for leprosy?

Symptoms include pale or red skin lesions, reduced sensation, and numbness.

110

Where did leprosy originate from?

Africa/Southern Asia

111

What is HIV?

a virus that attacks cells of your body's immune system

112

What does the virus in HIV do?

it destroys white blood cells

113

What does HIV/AIDs stand for?

human immunodeficiency virus
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

114

What happens when HIV is left untreated?

HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last state of HIV infection.

115

What is AIDs?

the final stage of HIV infection

116

Where did HIV come from?

Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in Central Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s.

117

Is there a cure for HIV/AIDs?

No cure, but ARVs can slow down the progress of the disease

118

What is chicken pox?

an infectious disease causing a mild fever and a rash of itchy inflamed blisters caused by varicella-zoster virus
which can last from few days to many weeks

119

What is shingles?

A reactivation of the chickenpox virus in the body, causing a painful rash (Herpes Zoster)

120

Among who is shingles most common?

most common in older adults and people who have weak immune systems because of stress, injury, certain medicines, or other reasons

121

How does chicken pox spread?

virus spreads mainly by touching or breathing in the virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters, and possibly through tiny droplets from infected people that get into the air after they breathe or talk, for example

122

When do people take doses of chicken pox vaccine?

Children under 13 years old should get two doses of the chickenpox vaccine at these ages:
1st dose: 12 through 15 months
2nd dose: 4 through 6 years (may be given earlier, if at least three months after the 1st dose)
The second dose may be given at an earlier age if it is given at least three months after the first dose.

People 13 years or older (who have never had chickenpox and never received chickenpox vaccine) should get two doses at least 28 days apart.

123

When was the vaccine for chicken pox licensed for use?

March 1995

124

What is the incubation period of chicken pox?

two to three weeks

125

What happens if you're pregnant and have chicken pox?

it can cause birth defects/deadly infection

126

What is dysentery? (bacteria)

Inflammation of the intestines accompanied by bloody diarrhea (infectious diarrhea)

127

What are the two types of dysentery?

The first type, amoebic dysentery or intestinal amoebiasis, is caused by a single-celled, microscopic parasite living in the large bowel. The second type, bacillary dysentery, is caused by invasive bacteria. Both kinds of dysentery occur mostly in hot countries. Poor hygiene and sanitation increase the risk of dysentery by spreading the parasite or bacteria that cause it through food or water contaminated from infected human feces.

128

Symptoms of dysentery

A key symptom is bloody diarrhea. There may also be abdominal pain, cramps, fever, and malaise

129

Where is dysentery most common?

in children under age 5 in more tropical regions

130

What happens if dysentery is left untreated?

death in 24 hours from dehydration

131

What are treatments for dysentery?

no known vaccines yet, only anti-bacterial

132

When is dysentery most problematic?

during summer when people die from high fever an dehydration

133

Among who is it very serious if they get dysentery?

Children ages 10-15 years if they lose a lot of body fluid in a short amount of time

134

What time was dysentery a huge problem?

during the Vietnam War because of the wet places

135

What is tuberculosis?

A potentially serious infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs; an airborne disease, and can be caught by breathing in the air that an infected person has contaminated through: Breathing. Coughing.

136

Primary tuberculosis and secondary

seen as an initial infection, usually in children
seen mostly in adults as a reactivation of previous infection (or reinfection), particularly when health status declines

137

The primary stage of TB does not cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they can include:

Breathing difficulty
Chest pain
Cough (usually with mucus)
Coughing up blood
Excessive sweating, especially at night
Fatigue
Fever
Weight loss
Wheezing

138

The following people are at high risk of active TB or reactivation of TB:

Elderly
Infants
People with weakened immune systems, for example due to HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or medicines that weaken the immune system

139

What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

the causative agent of tuberculosis; straight, slightly curved rod shaped organisms

140

Exams and tests for tuberculosis

Tuberculin skin test (also called a PPD test) - antituberculosis drugs/ antibiotics
streptomycin- It can treat tuberculosis (TB) and other serious infections (bacterium); 5 courses given, administered throughout the nation

141

What is rabies?

a contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs and other mammals that causes madness and convulsions, transmissible through the saliva to humans

142

How do rabies spread?

it is caused by rod/bullet shaped virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae

143

How are rabies transmitted?

via animal bute but also can penetrate through saliva or moist tissues like eyes

144

Symptoms of rabies

Symptoms include fever, headache, excess salivation, muscle spasms, paralysis, and mental confusion.

145

Treatments for rabies

A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible, as soon as possible after the bite.
A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. You receive four injections over 14 days.

146

Incubation period for rabies

3-8 weeks; as little as 9 days (every mammal can have rabies)

147

How can you get rabies in a cave?

lots of bats = able to get it from inhaling the air

148

What is small pox?

An eradicated virus that used to be contagious, disfiguring, and often deadly

149

How did small pox spread?

spread with dramatic increases in population density

150

What time period did small pox sprung up?

The Gilded Age

151

Symptoms of small pox

In addition to flu-like symptoms, patients also experience a rash that appear first on the face, hands and forearms, and then later appears on the trunk.

152

What causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?

a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii (tiny bacteria lies in the cell)

153

Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches. A rash may be present, frequently with blackened or crusted skin at the site of a tick bite.

154

Treatments of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

doxycycline

155

Treatment for small pox

Edward Jenner produced vaccine in 1798

156

What is Typhus fever?

a disease caused by an infection with the Rickettsia bacteria (rickettsia prowazekii). Fleas, mites (chiggers), lice, or ticks transmit it when they bite you.
*immigrants from Ireland (Typhoid May) gave it to many people

157

Where can Typhus fever be found?

It can be found around the world, including in the United States, but is typically found in areas of high population and poor sanitation, where conditions promote lice infestation (common on battlefields)

158

What do both Rocky Mountain and Typhus fever have in common?

carried by a rickettsia- extremely tiny bacterium that are all parasitic

159

What is the Bubonic Plague?

is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Carried by rodents in many parts of the world and transmitted by fleas. Contract the disease when in contact with infected fleas.

160

Symptoms of Bubonic Plague

Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, which can be as large as chicken eggs, in the groin, armpit, or neck. They may be tender and warm. Others include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches.

161

Most severe of Bubonic Plague was in 1347-1348

in Europe every 10-20 years in which the people would kill cats, dogs, ect., buried sulfur and also clothes and items, killed Jews

162

What causes the Bubonic Plague?

caused by Yersinia pestis

163

When does death occur when person receives the Bubonic Plague?

1. within 3 days
2. 5-7 days
untreated = 50-90%
treated = 5-15%

164

Prevention of Bubonic Plague?

clean conditions, wear gloves, avoid infected fleas

165

Treatment of Bubonic Plague?

common antibiotics
untreated = egg-size swellings called buboes or pneumonic

166

How did black death get its name?

fluids inside would be black/brownish because it prevented the blood flow from extremities making it turn that black color

167

What disease does Bacillus anthracis produce?

anthrax in cattle, sheep, and people

168

What was the earliest organisms

prokaryotes, cells lacking true nuclei

169

eukaryotes

composed of one or more cells that contain nuclei and many organelles absent in prokaryotic cells

170

spontaneous generation

commonly believed that life could regularly arise from nonliving matter

171

Louis Pasteur

all life today arises only by the reproduction of preexisting life

172

biogenesis

life-from-life

173

amino acid

Miller and Urey's abiotic production of organic molecules; a laboratory simulation of early Earth chemistry

174

RNA

amino acids-proteins
single stranded; DNA = double

175

what causes diseases

prokaryotes

176

E. coli *what is looked for when an area is polluted

bacteria found in stomach; neutralistic relationship in intestine, helps process foods/synthesizes vitamin K in return gets a place to stay, food source
*slaughter houses have to be kept clean
take antibiotics- uncomfortable feeling

177

major decomposers of life on earth

bacteria together with fungi

178

What do prokaryotes living in soil and at the bottom of lakes, rivers, and oceans do?

help to decompose dead organisms and other organic waste material, returning vital chemical elements to the environment

179

prokaryotes = disappear?

the chemical cycles that sustain life would come to a halt and all forms of eukaryotic life would also be doomed

180

What are all viruses?

all subcellular, all parasites, and carry on life processes only in the presence of a host

181

Bacterial shapes

cocci = spherical
bacillus = rod-shaped
spirllum = spirals

182

Prefixes

diplo = 2 together
strepte = chains of 3 or more
staplo = grape like clusters ( only cocci)

183

Pathogens

bring about a disease

184

retroviruses

AIDs and Ebola
when it takes over the host, it uses codes

185

binary fission

bacteria reproduces this way, viruses don't
(under ideal conditions can reproduce every 20 minutes); single cell division

186

incubation period

time being exposed to it and when you actually develop it

187

endospore

bacterias have waxy protective coating called endospore

188

dirty water

boil water twice or keep in extended water

189

Hurricane Katrina

people had to bring in drinking water (bottled water) because bacterial level was way too high and was only safe for showering

190

who has the top water supply

Memphis and Denver

191

soft water

doesn't have many minerals

192

algae als in ice cream

makes it look smooth

193

conjungation

some bacteria have a primitive type of sexual reproduction called

194

pili

the slightly different bacteria that DNA are referred to as a positive and a negative; come together being hold in place by pili

195

homozygous

blue blood = weaker gene pool = royalty

196

huge advantage of sexual reproduction

increasing gene pool making it stronger

197

dominant traits

if survives long enough

198

anthrax endospores 2001

people emailed letters that had anthrax endospores; since it was powder- open = powder gets into lungs, then comes out and grows into an exotoxin to its environment

199

exotoxins

proteins that bacterial cells secrete into their environment (ex. Staphylococcus aureus)

200

endotoxins

chemical components of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria
symptoms: fever, aches, blood pressure drops

201

Ecological Import of Prokaryotes

1. element nitrogen (78%) have to be in our diet because lightning breaks down and nitrogen fixation occurs
animals in roots change to nitrates = why we're heterotrophs- food = energy ; build body
2. decompose organic material to recycle

202

where does all the nitrogen that plants use to make proteins and nucleic acids come from

prokaryotic metabolism in soil

203

endosymbiosis

some organelles used to be separate organism, but lost identity afterwards

204

euglena

common inhabitant of pond water, can change its mode of nutrition depending on accessibility of light and nutrients

205

algae gives off enough oxygen to the corral

mutualistic organisms

206

Lysogenic Infection

the viral replication stops, becoming dormant for a time
when individuals is under stress, the process will continue (ex: Chicken pox (shingles) or Herpes Simplex)

207

flu virus

mutates regularly

208

What drug is given for Malaria?

Quinine; same effect as DDT = cranes' eggs wouldn't harden

209

long term effect of Malaria

since it didn't leave the body, it caused deafness

210

aerobic

requires atmosphere oxygen

211

anaerobic

requires an environment devoid of oxygen

212

tetanus

obligate anaerobe; iron nail- piercing wounds, can still grow inside when it is closed up

213

*WE ARE

OBLIGATED AEROBICS

214

AIDS virus

an obligate anaerobe

215

obligate anaerobe

only survives 7 seconds in air; if part in presence of oxygen, it will die (HIV/AIDs)

216

syphilis

sexually transmitted
not treated = symptoms go away but chronic may go to brain and no longer respond to antibiotic

217

Lyme Disease

caused by bacteria carried by ticks; bullseye rash like Target logo (bacterial) can be diagnosed by blood test that treat with antibiotics and goes away; no treatment = chronic = joint pain = doesn't send blood to body which ends up having to get your hands/legs amputated; arthritis like symptoms

218

best defenses against bacterial diseases

1. sanitation
2. antibiotics
3. education

219

Clostridium botulinum

bacterium consudered to have dangerous potential which
1. blocks transmission of nerve signals that cause muscle contraction
2. deadliest poison on Earth
*30 gram is enough to kill everyone in US

220

bioremediatio

the use of organisms to remove pollutants from water, soil, or air

221

Protists are

eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants

222

parasitic trypanosomes

infect blood and cause sleeping sickness in Africa

223

one species of parasitic amoebas

causes amoebic dysentery

224

amoeba

shape is constantly changing as it moves about catching food

225

Anopheles

genus of the mosquito that can spread malaria

226

diatom

specimens are in geometric shapes that divide in half asexually several times, getting smaller, before they reproduce sexually

227

dinoflagellate

both red and brown species are found; algae that are an important part of the plankton in the ocean

228

euglena

a birdbath's water is a good place to find this protist that can carry on photosynthesis and has a single flagella

229

paramecium

this protist has an "avoidance mechanism" that causes it to reverse when it bumps into an obstacle, then veer to the left and proceed forward again

230

Plasmodium

genus of the protist that causes malaria which can damage the liver an cause a jaundice cast to skin

231

toxoplasmosis

this is a disease that is carried by birds and domestic cats that can damage a developing embryo with mutations

232

trichonympha

protists with a mutualistic relationship with termites, helping to digest the wood termites ingest

233

Chagas' Disease

it is believed that Charles Darwin contracted this protist on his HMS Beagle voyage; damages heart muscle

234

tsetse fly

vector that spreads african sleeping sickness

235

what is the function of the micronucleus in the protistan that has it

directs reproduction

236

which protistans can carry photosynthesis

euglena, dinoflagellate

237

term least closely to others (cilia, flagella, plasmodium, pseudopodia)

plasmodium

238

to find brightest area in its habitat, euglena uses

red eyespot

239

the engulfing process whereby large particles may enter the cell of an amoeba is

phagcytosis

240

this protist has glass-like skeleton of silica

diatoms

241

the phylum of non-motile protists, usually parasitic is

sporozoa

242

which is not true of amoebas

have a definite shape

243

least closely related to others (prokaryote, protist, eukaryote, unicellular)

prokaryote

244

if the paramecium is touched by something on part of the cilia

tiny bristles explode from the trichocysts and temporarily paralyze microorganisms

245

function of macronucleus

controls all cell activity except reproduction

246

primitive type of sexual reproduction is called where slightly different genetic material is exchanged

conjugation

247

this type of algae is used as an additive to toothpaste to gently clean the teeth

diatoms

248

the process where raindrops or other water molecules may enter the amoeba cell

pinocytosis

249

a virus that attacks bacteria is

bacteriophage

250

virus that transcribes DNA from RNA template is

retrovirus

251

Anthrax

Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It mainly affects animals. Humans can become infected through contact with an infected animal or by inhaling spores.
Symptoms depend on the route of infection. They can range from a skin ulcer with a dark scab to difficulty breathing.
Antibiotic treatment cures most infections. Inhaled anthrax is harder to treat and can be fatal.

252

Lysogenic Cycle

attacks cell, takes over nucleus, take DNA but stops and become dormant

253

thick outer membrane on a paramecium

pellicle

254

member of Phylum Sarcodina that has a skeleton of silica

ameba

255

a paramecium is classified in the phylum

ciliophora

256

any ameba is a member of the phylum

Sarcodina

257

Why is euglena positively phototrophic

so it can carry on photosynthesis

258

avoidence technique in paramecium

move 30 degrees left

259

red tides

Dinoflagellates- Gonyalax (genus)

260

Prions

tiny virus causing Mad Cow Disease

261

Toxoplasmosis- how get, avoid, pregnant woman

something you get by infected cats; cleaning litter box, can cause birth defects

262

contaminated water

typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery

263

protists that carry photosynthesis

euglena, diatoms, dinoflagellates

264

bioremediation

To clean up oil spills, bacteria are introduced to the area of the spill where they break down the hydrocarbons of the oil into carbon dioxide

265

lysozyme

antibacterial enzyme in tears and also in mucus

266

#1 health problem

tooth decay

267

staphlococcus

gangrene (shape of bacteria in cluster)

268

3 types of archaebacteria

methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles

269

1989 exxon valdez data

at Prince William Sound- Alaska

270

cynobacteria

blue-green algae in Coral Polyps to provide oxygen
*important producers in oceans of food and oxygen, are in Lichen (algae and fungus), and important in nitrogen fixation

271

symbiosis

closely associated organisms

272

retroviruses

RNA in genetic core is example

273

Endosymbiont Hypothesis

mitochondra and chloroplast

274

relationship

mutualism- e. coli in our intestines; nomeus with port man of war
commensalism- remora and sharks and mistletoe in oak trees
parasitism- bacteria that cause disease

275

epiphytes

have aerial roots (ex. mistletoe or orchids)

276

anal pore

stores excess foods

277

euglena can store excess glucose by combining t into starch

paramylon

278

dinoflagellates

Bioluminescence (production and emission of light by a living organism) - Apollo 13 movie

279

amoeba get nutrients by

phagorytosis

280

diatoms- "test"

reproduce geometrically and third stage is when it reproduce sexually and grow back to original size

281

How are protista (unicellular eukaroytes) classified

movement and nutrients
amoeba- pseudupodia
uglena- flagellum
paramecium- cilia

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Why is bacterium's oracle chromosome NOT copied during mitosis as so many other cell's DNA is?

mitosis is division of nucleus and bacteria don't have nucleuses so it's division of DNA