Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (282):
Bacteria produce a wide variety of distinctively flavored molecules as a result of
Bacteria not only produce a wide variety of foods and medicines, but they are also responsible for the following diseases
Strep, tetanus, tuberculosis, diphtheria, gonorrhea, and syphilis
What do saprophytes feed on?
Pasteurization helps prevent disease because it
The chromosome-like part of a virus is surrounded by a(n)
What reproduces using hereditary material from the cell they are living in?
Which of the following is not a common shape of bacteria?
When growing conditions are not right, many bacteria form
Chemicals made by the body that help destroy viruses and harmful bacteria
The common cold is caused by
Bacterial cells do not contain a
High temperatures are used to prepare canned foods because the heat
Kills bacteria in the food
Bacteria reproduce by
The process by which bacteria use enzymes to convert nitrogen gas into ammonia is called
The percent of Earth's atmosphere that is nitrogen gas is about
78% (Lightning is the first step in converting this gas into a usable form. It superheats the nitrogen gas changing it to Nitric Acid. Rainfall percolates this into the soil. Nitrogen fixating bacteria change this nitric acid to Nitrates which the plant uses like a fertilizer)
Chemicals used to kill bacteria on living things are
Are cold sores caused by a virus or bacteria?
Compared to bacteria, viruses are
The genetic material (DNA or RNA) inside a virus
Non-living particles that reproduce inside a living cell
Layer that surrounds the virus, giving it an exact shape that will interlock with the host cell
Protein coat (capsid)
The cell in which a virus reproduces
Has only RNA in its Nucleic acid
A rod-shaped bacterium is a
A virus that infects a bacterial cell
Bacteria reproduce by dividing into two equal cells in a process called
An external protective layer located on the outside of the cell wall of some bacteria is a
A round bacterium is a
Genetic information can be exchanged between bacteria in a process called
A structure in some bacteria that is resistant to adverse environmental factors in a(n)
A protein substance that inhibits virus replication is
Any organism that derives it's energy from dead or dying organisms is a(n)
Any organism or object that carries or transmits disease-causing organisms is a
A spiral or curve-shaped bacterium is a
A type of cell extension in bacteria is
Bacteria that require oxygen are called
Organisms that do not use oxygen during respiration are
A relationship between two species with both deriving some benefit is called
Many viruses are quickly destroyed by the body's
White blood cells
Halophiles can be found in
Viruses are also called
A protein substance that inhibits virus replication in an animal cell that has been invaded by a virus
Viruses are found in
air, water, and soil
1st life form, survives under harsh conditions
Fixes nitrogen for plants
Polio was an epidemic in 1950s
Hot Springs, Arkansas; FDR had it
When was the Salk Vaccine developed?
Jonas Salk started testing 1954; announced it was effective 1955
What happened in Rockaway Beach, NY during July?
Portugese man-of-war jellyfish stung two kids = surprises respiratory system
When and who developed the oral vaccine for polio?
Sabin developed his vaccine in 1970's (1961-1971)
What is MMR vaccine?
it's measles, mumps, and rubella
given at 15 months
What are mumps?
An inflammation of the salivary glands which you get at 15 months
What type of infection is shingles?
What type of infection is cold sores/Herpes simplex?
In 1976, as people were dying from Rickettsia, what was the result?
AIDs were beginning to get more attention for research after the gay complained in 1980
How is one HIV/AIDs positive?
When T4 helper cells go down to 200
How is influenza developed?
developed through guessing what will happen next year
Who is the vector for Yellow Fever/Malaria?
What is Yellow Fever caused by?
What is Malaria caused by?
caused by a protist called Plasmodium
What is the parasite that's on mosquitos that causes Malaria?
the parasites are found (as "sporozoites") in the female Anopheles mosquito's salivary glands (males don't bite, only fertilizes females)
What is the smallest bacteria?
What happened in 1976 in PA?
Convention of American veterans who had respiratory problems with flu like symptoms. Found out there was a rickettsia in the water which spread through mist in the cooling tower on the roof of the hotel. Mist affected the older people, not so much the young.
Why would the epidemic recently found in Spain recently respond to antibiotics?
Because it is a bacterium
problem caused by bacteria
making buttermilk or sauerkraut
helpful use of bacteria
removing water from food
way to control bacteria
cold sores, AIDS
problem caused by viruses
way to control bacteria
problem caused by bacteria
decomposing dead material
helpful use of bacteria
way to control bacteria
way to control bacteria
problem caused by bacteria
What is the tobacco mosaic disease?
first virus to be discovered
Communicable diseases can be caused by bacteria or viruses
one way AIDS is spread is by sexual contact with an infected person
Pneumonia, strep throat, and tuberculosis are communicable diseases
Syphilis and gonorrhea (STD) are examples of diseases caused by bacteria
heating milk to kill bacteria
removing water from food
using iodine, hydrogen peroxide, or alcohol
lowering the temperature of food
giving a vaccine
problem caused by bacteria
vitamins in the intestines
rabies in dogs
problem caused by viruses
making linen and rope
insulin production for humans
problem caused by bacteria
cold sores, measles, polio, AIDS
problem causes by viruses
break down dead matter
What is strep?
a bacterial infection that causes inflammation and pain in the throat
Where is strep common?
in school age children
How is strep contagious?
spread through cough
What are strep symptoms?
Common symptoms include sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Rarely, complications can involve the heart or kidneys.
What are treatments for strep?
allergic = cephalexin, erythromycin and azithromycin
can also take Bacilli = injection; very painful
What happens if you don't treat strep?
subside in 4-5 days but might develop Scarlet fever
Who was someone who didn't treat strep?
Madeline Greenstein ended up having P.A.N.D.A.S.
What is leprosy/Hansen's disease?
a slowly developing, progressive disease that damages the skin and nervous system (contagious bacterial disease)
Who was the founder for leprosy?
Gerhard Armauer Hansen
What are the two forms of leprosy?
tuberculoid and lepromatous
How does leprosy spread?
Leprosy spreads through contact with the mucus of an infected person. (person to person)
What are the treatments for leprosy?
Treatment depends on severity; used to be Dapsone but today it's mixture of antibiotics
Why does leprosy have one of the slowest diving cells?
It takes 12-14 days to undergo one cell division
What are the symptoms for leprosy?
Symptoms include pale or red skin lesions, reduced sensation, and numbness.
Where did leprosy originate from?
What is HIV?
a virus that attacks cells of your body's immune system
What does the virus in HIV do?
it destroys white blood cells
What does HIV/AIDs stand for?
human immunodeficiency virus
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
What happens when HIV is left untreated?
HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last state of HIV infection.
What is AIDs?
the final stage of HIV infection
Where did HIV come from?
Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in Central Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s.
Is there a cure for HIV/AIDs?
No cure, but ARVs can slow down the progress of the disease
What is chicken pox?
an infectious disease causing a mild fever and a rash of itchy inflamed blisters caused by varicella-zoster virus
which can last from few days to many weeks
What is shingles?
A reactivation of the chickenpox virus in the body, causing a painful rash (Herpes Zoster)
Among who is shingles most common?
most common in older adults and people who have weak immune systems because of stress, injury, certain medicines, or other reasons
How does chicken pox spread?
virus spreads mainly by touching or breathing in the virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters, and possibly through tiny droplets from infected people that get into the air after they breathe or talk, for example
When do people take doses of chicken pox vaccine?
Children under 13 years old should get two doses of the chickenpox vaccine at these ages:
1st dose: 12 through 15 months
2nd dose: 4 through 6 years (may be given earlier, if at least three months after the 1st dose)
The second dose may be given at an earlier age if it is given at least three months after the first dose.
People 13 years or older (who have never had chickenpox and never received chickenpox vaccine) should get two doses at least 28 days apart.
When was the vaccine for chicken pox licensed for use?
What is the incubation period of chicken pox?
two to three weeks
What happens if you're pregnant and have chicken pox?
it can cause birth defects/deadly infection
What is dysentery? (bacteria)
Inflammation of the intestines accompanied by bloody diarrhea (infectious diarrhea)
What are the two types of dysentery?
The first type, amoebic dysentery or intestinal amoebiasis, is caused by a single-celled, microscopic parasite living in the large bowel. The second type, bacillary dysentery, is caused by invasive bacteria. Both kinds of dysentery occur mostly in hot countries. Poor hygiene and sanitation increase the risk of dysentery by spreading the parasite or bacteria that cause it through food or water contaminated from infected human feces.
Symptoms of dysentery
A key symptom is bloody diarrhea. There may also be abdominal pain, cramps, fever, and malaise
Where is dysentery most common?
in children under age 5 in more tropical regions
What happens if dysentery is left untreated?
death in 24 hours from dehydration
What are treatments for dysentery?
no known vaccines yet, only anti-bacterial
When is dysentery most problematic?
during summer when people die from high fever an dehydration
Among who is it very serious if they get dysentery?
Children ages 10-15 years if they lose a lot of body fluid in a short amount of time
What time was dysentery a huge problem?
during the Vietnam War because of the wet places
What is tuberculosis?
A potentially serious infectious bacterial disease that mainly affects the lungs; an airborne disease, and can be caught by breathing in the air that an infected person has contaminated through: Breathing. Coughing.
Primary tuberculosis and secondary
seen as an initial infection, usually in children
seen mostly in adults as a reactivation of previous infection (or reinfection), particularly when health status declines
The primary stage of TB does not cause symptoms. When symptoms of pulmonary TB occur, they can include:
Cough (usually with mucus)
Coughing up blood
Excessive sweating, especially at night
The following people are at high risk of active TB or reactivation of TB:
People with weakened immune systems, for example due to HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy, diabetes, or medicines that weaken the immune system
What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
the causative agent of tuberculosis; straight, slightly curved rod shaped organisms
Exams and tests for tuberculosis
Tuberculin skin test (also called a PPD test) - antituberculosis drugs/ antibiotics
streptomycin- It can treat tuberculosis (TB) and other serious infections (bacterium); 5 courses given, administered throughout the nation
What is rabies?
a contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs and other mammals that causes madness and convulsions, transmissible through the saliva to humans
How do rabies spread?
it is caused by rod/bullet shaped virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae
How are rabies transmitted?
via animal bute but also can penetrate through saliva or moist tissues like eyes
Symptoms of rabies
Symptoms include fever, headache, excess salivation, muscle spasms, paralysis, and mental confusion.
Treatments for rabies
A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible, as soon as possible after the bite.
A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. You receive four injections over 14 days.
Incubation period for rabies
3-8 weeks; as little as 9 days (every mammal can have rabies)
How can you get rabies in a cave?
lots of bats = able to get it from inhaling the air
What is small pox?
An eradicated virus that used to be contagious, disfiguring, and often deadly
How did small pox spread?
spread with dramatic increases in population density
What time period did small pox sprung up?
The Gilded Age
Symptoms of small pox
In addition to flu-like symptoms, patients also experience a rash that appear first on the face, hands and forearms, and then later appears on the trunk.
What causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii (tiny bacteria lies in the cell)
Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches. A rash may be present, frequently with blackened or crusted skin at the site of a tick bite.
Treatments of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Treatment for small pox
Edward Jenner produced vaccine in 1798
What is Typhus fever?
a disease caused by an infection with the Rickettsia bacteria (rickettsia prowazekii). Fleas, mites (chiggers), lice, or ticks transmit it when they bite you.
*immigrants from Ireland (Typhoid May) gave it to many people
Where can Typhus fever be found?
It can be found around the world, including in the United States, but is typically found in areas of high population and poor sanitation, where conditions promote lice infestation (common on battlefields)
What do both Rocky Mountain and Typhus fever have in common?
carried by a rickettsia- extremely tiny bacterium that are all parasitic
What is the Bubonic Plague?
is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. Carried by rodents in many parts of the world and transmitted by fleas. Contract the disease when in contact with infected fleas.
Symptoms of Bubonic Plague
Symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, which can be as large as chicken eggs, in the groin, armpit, or neck. They may be tender and warm. Others include fever, chills, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches.
Most severe of Bubonic Plague was in 1347-1348
in Europe every 10-20 years in which the people would kill cats, dogs, ect., buried sulfur and also clothes and items, killed Jews
What causes the Bubonic Plague?
caused by Yersinia pestis
When does death occur when person receives the Bubonic Plague?
1. within 3 days
2. 5-7 days
untreated = 50-90%
treated = 5-15%
Prevention of Bubonic Plague?
clean conditions, wear gloves, avoid infected fleas
Treatment of Bubonic Plague?
untreated = egg-size swellings called buboes or pneumonic
How did black death get its name?
fluids inside would be black/brownish because it prevented the blood flow from extremities making it turn that black color
What disease does Bacillus anthracis produce?
anthrax in cattle, sheep, and people
What was the earliest organisms
prokaryotes, cells lacking true nuclei
composed of one or more cells that contain nuclei and many organelles absent in prokaryotic cells
commonly believed that life could regularly arise from nonliving matter
all life today arises only by the reproduction of preexisting life
Miller and Urey's abiotic production of organic molecules; a laboratory simulation of early Earth chemistry
single stranded; DNA = double
what causes diseases
E. coli *what is looked for when an area is polluted
bacteria found in stomach; neutralistic relationship in intestine, helps process foods/synthesizes vitamin K in return gets a place to stay, food source
*slaughter houses have to be kept clean
take antibiotics- uncomfortable feeling
major decomposers of life on earth
bacteria together with fungi
What do prokaryotes living in soil and at the bottom of lakes, rivers, and oceans do?
help to decompose dead organisms and other organic waste material, returning vital chemical elements to the environment
prokaryotes = disappear?
the chemical cycles that sustain life would come to a halt and all forms of eukaryotic life would also be doomed
What are all viruses?
all subcellular, all parasites, and carry on life processes only in the presence of a host
cocci = spherical
bacillus = rod-shaped
spirllum = spirals
diplo = 2 together
strepte = chains of 3 or more
staplo = grape like clusters ( only cocci)
bring about a disease
AIDs and Ebola
when it takes over the host, it uses codes
bacteria reproduces this way, viruses don't
(under ideal conditions can reproduce every 20 minutes); single cell division
time being exposed to it and when you actually develop it
bacterias have waxy protective coating called endospore
boil water twice or keep in extended water
people had to bring in drinking water (bottled water) because bacterial level was way too high and was only safe for showering
who has the top water supply
Memphis and Denver
doesn't have many minerals
algae als in ice cream
makes it look smooth
some bacteria have a primitive type of sexual reproduction called
the slightly different bacteria that DNA are referred to as a positive and a negative; come together being hold in place by pili
blue blood = weaker gene pool = royalty
huge advantage of sexual reproduction
increasing gene pool making it stronger
if survives long enough
anthrax endospores 2001
people emailed letters that had anthrax endospores; since it was powder- open = powder gets into lungs, then comes out and grows into an exotoxin to its environment
proteins that bacterial cells secrete into their environment (ex. Staphylococcus aureus)
chemical components of the outer membrane of certain gram-negative bacteria
symptoms: fever, aches, blood pressure drops
Ecological Import of Prokaryotes
1. element nitrogen (78%) have to be in our diet because lightning breaks down and nitrogen fixation occurs
animals in roots change to nitrates = why we're heterotrophs- food = energy ; build body
2. decompose organic material to recycle
where does all the nitrogen that plants use to make proteins and nucleic acids come from
prokaryotic metabolism in soil
some organelles used to be separate organism, but lost identity afterwards
common inhabitant of pond water, can change its mode of nutrition depending on accessibility of light and nutrients
algae gives off enough oxygen to the corral
the viral replication stops, becoming dormant for a time
when individuals is under stress, the process will continue (ex: Chicken pox (shingles) or Herpes Simplex)
What drug is given for Malaria?
Quinine; same effect as DDT = cranes' eggs wouldn't harden
long term effect of Malaria
since it didn't leave the body, it caused deafness
requires atmosphere oxygen
requires an environment devoid of oxygen
obligate anaerobe; iron nail- piercing wounds, can still grow inside when it is closed up
an obligate anaerobe
only survives 7 seconds in air; if part in presence of oxygen, it will die (HIV/AIDs)
not treated = symptoms go away but chronic may go to brain and no longer respond to antibiotic
caused by bacteria carried by ticks; bullseye rash like Target logo (bacterial) can be diagnosed by blood test that treat with antibiotics and goes away; no treatment = chronic = joint pain = doesn't send blood to body which ends up having to get your hands/legs amputated; arthritis like symptoms
best defenses against bacterial diseases
bacterium consudered to have dangerous potential which
1. blocks transmission of nerve signals that cause muscle contraction
2. deadliest poison on Earth
*30 gram is enough to kill everyone in US
the use of organisms to remove pollutants from water, soil, or air
eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants
infect blood and cause sleeping sickness in Africa
one species of parasitic amoebas
causes amoebic dysentery
shape is constantly changing as it moves about catching food
genus of the mosquito that can spread malaria
specimens are in geometric shapes that divide in half asexually several times, getting smaller, before they reproduce sexually
both red and brown species are found; algae that are an important part of the plankton in the ocean
a birdbath's water is a good place to find this protist that can carry on photosynthesis and has a single flagella
this protist has an "avoidance mechanism" that causes it to reverse when it bumps into an obstacle, then veer to the left and proceed forward again
genus of the protist that causes malaria which can damage the liver an cause a jaundice cast to skin
this is a disease that is carried by birds and domestic cats that can damage a developing embryo with mutations
protists with a mutualistic relationship with termites, helping to digest the wood termites ingest
it is believed that Charles Darwin contracted this protist on his HMS Beagle voyage; damages heart muscle
vector that spreads african sleeping sickness
what is the function of the micronucleus in the protistan that has it
which protistans can carry photosynthesis
term least closely to others (cilia, flagella, plasmodium, pseudopodia)
to find brightest area in its habitat, euglena uses
the engulfing process whereby large particles may enter the cell of an amoeba is
this protist has glass-like skeleton of silica
the phylum of non-motile protists, usually parasitic is
which is not true of amoebas
have a definite shape
least closely related to others (prokaryote, protist, eukaryote, unicellular)
if the paramecium is touched by something on part of the cilia
tiny bristles explode from the trichocysts and temporarily paralyze microorganisms
function of macronucleus
controls all cell activity except reproduction
primitive type of sexual reproduction is called where slightly different genetic material is exchanged
this type of algae is used as an additive to toothpaste to gently clean the teeth
the process where raindrops or other water molecules may enter the amoeba cell
a virus that attacks bacteria is
virus that transcribes DNA from RNA template is
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It mainly affects animals. Humans can become infected through contact with an infected animal or by inhaling spores.
Symptoms depend on the route of infection. They can range from a skin ulcer with a dark scab to difficulty breathing.
Antibiotic treatment cures most infections. Inhaled anthrax is harder to treat and can be fatal.
attacks cell, takes over nucleus, take DNA but stops and become dormant
thick outer membrane on a paramecium
member of Phylum Sarcodina that has a skeleton of silica
a paramecium is classified in the phylum
any ameba is a member of the phylum
Why is euglena positively phototrophic
so it can carry on photosynthesis
avoidence technique in paramecium
move 30 degrees left
Dinoflagellates- Gonyalax (genus)
tiny virus causing Mad Cow Disease
Toxoplasmosis- how get, avoid, pregnant woman
something you get by infected cats; cleaning litter box, can cause birth defects
typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery
protists that carry photosynthesis
euglena, diatoms, dinoflagellates
To clean up oil spills, bacteria are introduced to the area of the spill where they break down the hydrocarbons of the oil into carbon dioxide
antibacterial enzyme in tears and also in mucus
#1 health problem
gangrene (shape of bacteria in cluster)
3 types of archaebacteria
methanogens, halophiles, and thermophiles
1989 exxon valdez data
at Prince William Sound- Alaska
blue-green algae in Coral Polyps to provide oxygen
*important producers in oceans of food and oxygen, are in Lichen (algae and fungus), and important in nitrogen fixation
closely associated organisms
RNA in genetic core is example
mitochondra and chloroplast
mutualism- e. coli in our intestines; nomeus with port man of war
commensalism- remora and sharks and mistletoe in oak trees
parasitism- bacteria that cause disease
have aerial roots (ex. mistletoe or orchids)
stores excess foods
euglena can store excess glucose by combining t into starch
Bioluminescence (production and emission of light by a living organism) - Apollo 13 movie
amoeba get nutrients by
reproduce geometrically and third stage is when it reproduce sexually and grow back to original size
How are protista (unicellular eukaroytes) classified
movement and nutrients