Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (25):
1

Two questions

What do people do? Why do they do it?

2

Answering questions by

observing and measuring (methods of observation)
looking for relationships between things that are measured (method of explanation)

3

Dogmatists (belief)

the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions

4

Empeirokos

Understand illness by observing sick people

5

Empiricism

Acquiring knowledge through observation

6

Scientific method

Process for finding truth using empirical evidence

7

Theory

Hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon

8

Rule of parsimony

Simplest theory explains all evidence is best

9

Hypothesis

Falsifiable predication made by theory

10

Why can we only prove a theory wrong?

Evidence that is consistent increases confidence but we can never be 100% certain

11

Scientific method

Develop theories, derive hypotheses, test hypotheses, modify the theory

12

Empirical method

Set of rules and techniques for observation

13

Measurement

define the thing to be measured

14

Operational definition

description of a property in measurable terms

15

Properties of a good measure

Validity, Reliability and power

16

Demand Characteristics

aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else wants or expects

17

Naturalistic observation

technique for gathering scientific information by observing people in their natural environment

18

Observer bias

Expectations can influence observations
Expectations can influence reality

19

double blind observations

Observations whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed

20

Graphic representations of data

Frequency distrubution: measurements arranged by the number of times each measurement was made

21

Normal distribution

Frequency of measurements is highest in the middle and decreases symmetrically in both directions

22

Descriptive statistics of data

measures of central tendency
measure of variability

23

mode

average value of all measurement

24

mean

average value of all measurement

25

median

value that is in the ordered middle