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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (77):
1

Anatomy

Study of the structures of the body

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Anatomic reference systems

Used to describe the locations of the structural unit of the body

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Physiology

Study of the functions of the structures of the body

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PHYSI

Nature or physical

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Anatomic position

Describes the body standing in standard position

Standing up straight so the body is erect and facing forward. Holding the arms at the side with the hands turn to so the palms facing toward front

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Body planes

Imaginary vertical and horizontal lines dividing the body

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Vertical plane

Up and down plane

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Midsagittal plane

A.k.a. midline divided into equal left and right halves

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Frontal plane

Vertical plane divides the body into front and back

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Anterior

Front

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Posterior

Back

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Horizontal plane

Flat crosswise like the horizon

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Transverse plane

Horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions

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Superior

Upper

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Inferior

Lower

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Ventral

Front of the organ or body

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VENTR

Belly side of the body

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Dorsal

Back of the body or Organ

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DORS

Back of the body

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Cephalic

Toward the head

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Caudal

Toward the feet

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Anterior

Situated in the front also means on the front or forward part of Organ

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Posterior

Situated in back also means back part of an organ

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Proximal

Situated nearest the midline or beginning of structure

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Distal

Situated farthest from the midline or beginning of structure

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Medial

Direction toward or near the midline

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Lateral

Direction toward or near the side of the body away from the midline

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Two major body cavities

Dorsal and ventral

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Dorsal cavity

Located along the back of the body and head contains the nervous system that coordinates body functions divided into two parts

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Cranial cavity

Located within the skull surrounds and protects the brain

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Spinal cavity

Located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord

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Ventral cavity

Located along the front of the body, contains the organs that sustain homeostasis

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Homeostasis

Process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment

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HOME/O

Constant

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Stasis

Control

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Thoracic cavity

A.k.a. chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs

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Diaphragm

Muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities

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Abdominal cavity

Contains the major organs of digestion

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Pelvic cavity

Space formed by hip bones and contains organs of reproductive and excretory systems

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Abdominopelvic cavity

Refers to abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity as a single unit. There is no physical division between the two

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Inguinal

Relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen

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Hypochondriac

Below the ribs

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Epigastric region

Located above the stomach

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Right and left hypochondriac regions

Covered by the lower ribs

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Regions of the thorax and abdomen

Descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into nine parts

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Right and left lumbar regions

Located near the inward curve of the spine

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Lumbar

Part of the back between the ribs and pelvis

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Umbilical region

Surrounds the umbilicus

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Right and left iliac regions

Located near the hip bones

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Hypogastric region

Located below the stomach. Hypo means below GASTR mean stomach

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Quadrant

Divided into four

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RUQ

Right upper quadrant

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LUQ

Left upper quadrant

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RLQ

Right lower quadrant

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LLQ

Left lower quadrant

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Peritoneum

Multi layered membrane that protects and holds organs in place within the abdominal cavity

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Membrane

Thin layer of tissue that covers the surface, mines a cavity, or divide the space or Organ

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Parietal peritoneum

The outer layer of the peritoneum

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Mesentery

Fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

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Visceral peritoneum

Inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the of Abdominal cavity

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Retroperitoneal

Located behind the peritoneum

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Name the four structures of the body from smallest to largest

Cells form tissues, tissues form organs, organs form body systems

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Selves

Basic structural and functional units of the body

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Cytology

Study of the anatomy physiology pathology and chemistry of the cell

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Cytologist

Specialist in the study and analysis of cells

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Cell membrane

Tissue that surrounds and protects the cell

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Cytoplasm

Material that is within the cell not part of the nucleus

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Nucleus

Controls the activities of the cell and helps it divide

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Stem cells

Unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

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Adult stem cells/somatic stem cells

Undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ

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Undifferentiated

Not having a specialized function or structure

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Differentiated

Having a specialized function of structure

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Embryonic stem cells

Undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell. Very important ability to form any adult cell

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Cord blood

Where embryonic stem cells come from found in the umbilical cord and percent of newborn infant

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Genome

Complete set of genetic information of the organism

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Chromosome

Genetic structure located within the nucleus of a cell

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DNA abbreviation

Deoxyribonucleic acid