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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (11):
1

Nucleic acid

Phosphate, pentose sugar, nitrogenous base
1st prime is nearest to the base
5th prime is nearest phosphate

2

Different types of RNA

Messenger RNA- carries genetic messages to ribosomes where the message is translated to a protein
Ribosomal RNA- with other proteins, make the ribosomes
Transfer RNA- carry amino acids to ribosomes which it uses to synthesise proteins

3

Template strand

The only strand from the double helix containing genetic material

4

Protein
Make-up and structure

CHON (S&P)
CHRAC
Peptide bond formed between carbon and nitrogen

5

Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary

Primary structure- amino acid sequence, which depends on gene sequence, functions differ if primary structures are not the same
Secondary structure- alpha helix, beta pleated sheet, or a random coiling
Tertiary structure- irregular folding to form a complex internal structure, very critical for its function, held in place by peptide and hydrogen bonds
Quaternary structure- multiple polypeptide chains join

6

Examples of proteins

Enzyme; lactase
Structural; collagen or keratin
Hormone; insulin
immunoglobin; antibody

7

Proteome

all proteins produced by an organism in a particular environment

8

Transcription

DNA is copied and encoded into RNA
RNA polymerase attaches to a part of the upstream region of the template strand, double-helix DNA unwinds and exposes bases of the template strand, complementary nucleotides are joined to form an RNA chain, transcription stops when RNA polymerase gets to the downstream region
Free nucleotides, ATP and RNA polymerase is needed
A pairs with U
T pairs with A
C and G are the same

Post-transcription
5' cap, poly-A tail, splice exons
=mRNA

9

Translation

mRNA attaches to ribosome (made up of rRNA and ribosomal proteins), tRNA supplies amino acids to ribosomes
tRNA has complementary anti-codon bases, and pairs with mRNA to make sure the right amino acid is joined to the sequence
mRNA codon AUC, tRNA that has UAG will join its amino acid to the growing protein chain
Start: AUG
Stop: UGA, UAA, UAG

10

Lac Operon

read textbook

11

DNA replication

refer to notes