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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (82):
1

__ is considered the "great integrator" because it pulls information together

The human brain

2

The brain's special capacity for change

Plasticity

3

Psychologist use this term when referring to the ability to function in a changing world

Adaptability

4

Describe electrochemical transmission

It's powered by electrical impulses and chemical messengers. An impulse travels down the nerve cell, or neuron, electrically, when that impulse gets to the end of the line, it communicates with the next neuron using chemicals

5

__ nerves arrive at the brain and spinal cord, carrying info about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord sensory receptors (aka sensory nerves)

Afferent

6

__ nerves exit the brain and spinal cord, carrying info out of the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body (motor nerves)

Efferent

7

Networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor outputs

Neural networks

8

The central nervous system includes __ (CNS) more than 99% of all nerve cells are located here

The brain and the spinal cord

9

The network of nerves that connects the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body

Peripheral nervous system

10

Function of peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Bring info to and from the brain and spinal cord and to carry out the commands of the CNS to execute movement

11

The body system consisting of the sensory nerves, whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature, and the motor nerves, whose function is to tell muscles what to do

Somatic nervous system

12

The body system that takes messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion

Autonomic nervous system

13

The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to mobilize it for action and this is involved in the experience of stress

Sympathetic nervous system

14

The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body

Parasympathetic nervous system

15

Two parts of the autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

16

The two parts of the peripheral nervous system

Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

17

The response of individuals to environmental stressors

Stress

18

This reaction quickly mobilizes the body's physiological resources to prepare the organism to deal with threats to survival

Fight or flight response (sympathetic nervous system)

19

The momentary stress that occurs in response to life experiences

Acute stress

20

Stress that goes on continuously. This may lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal

Chronic stress

21

Powerful stress hormones are called __. We release these when we undergo stress

Corticosteroids

22

Example of corticosteroids allowing the brain to focus attention on what needs to be done now

In emergency, calling 911 or applying pressure to serious cut

23

One of two types of cells in the nervous system; they are the nerve cells that handle the information processing function

Neurons

24

The second of the two types of cells in the nervous system; they provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly

glial cells

25

The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance

Cell body

26

Treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body

Dendrites

27

The part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells

Axon

28

A layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons

Myelin sheath

29

The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron. This is between __ and __ millivolts

Resting potential
-60 and -75

30

The brief wave a positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon.

Action potential
Firing

31

When a neuron sends an action potential, it is commonly said to be __. An action potential only last about __ of a second, because the sodium channels can stay open for only a very brief time

Firing
1/1000

32

The principle that once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity(its threshold), it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity. The impulse traveling down an axon can be compared to the __

All or nothing principle
Burning fuse of a firecracker

33

The level of intensity that the electrical impulse reaches when it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing its intensity

Threshold

34

Tiny spaces between neurons; the gaps between neurons are referred to as __

Synapses
Synaptic gaps

35

The body's electrochemical communication circuitry

Nervous system

36

Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the neuron's terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron

Neurotransmitters

37

Eight different types of neurotransmitters

Acetylcholine,
GABA,
Glutamate,
Norepinephrine,
Dopamine,
Serotonin,
Endorphins,
Oxytocin

38

Stimulates the firing of neurons and is involved in the action of muscles, learning, and memory

Acetylcholine

39

Found throughout central nervous system. This keeps many neurons from firing, which helps to control the precision of the signal being carried from one neuron to the next

GABA

40

This has a key role in exciting many neurons to fire and is especially involved in learning and memory

Glutamate

41

This inhibits the firing of neurons in the central nervous system, but it excites the heart muscle, intestines, and urogenital tract

Norepinephrine

42

This helps to control voluntary movement and affects sleep, mood, attention, learning, and the ability to recognize rewards in the environment

Dopamine

43

This is involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, attention, and learning

Serotonin

44

These are natural opiates that mainly stimulate the firing of neurons. They heal the body in pain and elevate feelings of pleasure

Endorphins

45

This is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the experience of love and social bonding

Oxytocin

46

A drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitters effects

Agonist

47

A drug that blocks the nuerotransmitters effects

Antagonist

48

Six methods used to study the brain

Brain lesioning, EEG, CAT scan, PET scan, MRI, fMRI

49

This is an abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease. In a lab setting, neuroscientist produce these in laboratory animals to determine the effects of the animals behavior

Brain lesioning

50

This records the brains electrical activity

EEG

51

This produces a three-dimensional image obtained from x-rays of the head that are assembled into a composite image by a computer

CAT scan

52

This is based on metabolic changes in the brain related to activity. It measures the amount of glucose in various areas of the brain and then sends this information to a computer for analysis

PET scan

53

This involves creating a magnetic field around a persons body and using radio waves to construct images of the persons tissues and bio chemical activities

MRI

54

This allows scientists to see what is happening in the brain while it is working. At rest on the idea that mental activity is associated with changes in the brain. It exploits changes in blood oxygen that occur in association with brain activity

fMRI

55

Located at the skulls rear, the lowest portion of the brain, consisting of __, __, and __,

Hindbrain
Fills, cerebellum, pons

56

This begins where the spinal cord enters the skull

Medulla

57

This extends from the rear of the hindbrain, just above the medulla

Cerebellum

58

This is a bridge in the hindbrain that connects the cerebellum and the brain stem

pons

59

The stemlike brain area that includes much of the hindbrain and the midbrain; connects with the spinal cord and it's lower end and then extends upward to incase the reticular formation in the brain

Brainstem

60

Located between the hindbrain in the forebrain, an area in which many nerve fiber systems ascend and descend to connect a higher and lower portions of the brain; in particular, this relays information between the brain and the eyes in the ears

Midbrain

61

A system in the midbrain comprising a diffuse collection of neurons involved in stereotyped patterns of behavior such as walking, sleeping, and turning to attend to a set annoyed

Reticular formation

62

The brains largest division in its most forward part

Forebrain

63

Four parts of the forebrain

Limbic system, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus

64

A set of subcortical brain structures sent to emotion, memory, and reward processing

Limbic system

65

The structure in the limbic system that has a special role in the storage of memories

Hippocampus

66

An almond shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism's survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals

Amygdala

67

A small forebrain structure, located just below the thalamus, that monitors three pleasurable activities – eating, drinking, and sex – as well as emotion, stress, and reward

Hypothalamus

68

Part of the forebrain, the outer layer of the brain, responsible for the most complex mental functions, such as thinking and planning

Cerebral cortex

69

Four types of lobes

Occipital , temporal, frontal, parietal

70

Structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli

Occipital lobes

71

Structures in the cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing, language processing, and memory

Temporal lobes

72

The portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles

Frontal lobes

73

Structures at the top and toward the rear of the head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control

Parietal lobes

74

A region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations, located at the front of the parietal lobes

Somatosensory cortex

75

A region in the cerebral cortex, located just behind the frontal lobe's, that processes information about voluntary movement

Motor cortex

76

the region of the cerebral cortex that is the site of the highest intellectual functions, such as thinking and problem-solving

Association cortex

77

The large bundle of axons that connects the brains two hemispheres, responsible for relaying information between the two sides

Corpus callosum

78

Language disorder associated with brain damage

Aphasia

79

Left hemisphere of the brain, plays an important role in the production of speech

Broca's area

80

Another area of the brains left hemisphere that significantly figures in language. If it is damaged it causes problems in comprehending language

Wernicke's area

81

This hemisphere of the brain dominates in processing nonverbal information such as spatial perception, visual recognition, and emotion

Right hemisphere

82

This hemisphere of the brain is where speech and grammar are localized. It comprehends syntax and grammar and it's also keenly involved in singing the words of a song

Left hemisphere