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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (43):
1

the smallest representative particle of an element

atoms

2

four components of Dalton's atomic theory

1)all matter is made of atoms(atoms are indivisible and indestructible 2)all atoms of a given elements are identical in mass and properties 3)compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms 4)a chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms

3

who showed that cathode rays consist of particles(electrons) that conduct electricity

J.J. Thomson

4

radiation emitted when a voltage is applied between two metal plates inside a glass tube filled with low pressure gas

cathode rays

5

who concluded that electrons are part of atoms

J.J. Thomson

6

who demonstrated that there are two distinct types of radiation and discovered that radioactive preparations gave rise to the formation of gases

Ernest Rutherford

7

what is the revolutionary theory that Rutherford and Soddy formulated

elements could disintegrate and be transformed into other elemnts

8

who advanced the hypothesis that helium gas could be formed from radioactive substances

Ernest Rutherford

9

what three empirical laws did Dalton know

1)the law of conservation of mass 2)the law of constant composition of compounds 3)the empirical law of multiple proportions

10

who adapted Rutherford's nuclear structure to fit with Max Planck's quantum theory and obtained a theory of atomic structure which remains valid today

Niels Bohr

11

what is the charge on an electron and a proton

1.602 x10^-19 C

12

the charge carried across a surface by a steady current of one ampere in one second; SI unit of electric charge

C, coulomb

13

because atoms are so small, when we deal with mass of an atom we usually speak in terms of what

atomic mass unit(amu) aka a Dalton

14

weight of a proton

1.0073 amus

15

weight of a neutron

1.0087 amus

16

weight of an electron

5.486 x 10^-4 amus

17

if an atom loses one or more electrons, it becomes _______ ______ _______

positively charges ion

18

if an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes ________ ______ ______

negatively charged ion

19

elements with different atomic masses

isotopes

20

the subscript is

atomic number

21

the superscript is

mass number

22

tells us the number of protons; same as giving the symbol for the element and is often left off

atomic number

23

indicates the number of protons and neutrons combined

mass number

24

atomic weight is more commonly referred to as

relative atomic mass

25

the weighted average of the masses of isotopes in the naturally occurring element relative to the mass of an atom of the carbon -12 isotope which is taken to be exactly 12

relative atomic mass

26

most of the elements are ______

metals

27

what are the main types of metals

alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, basic metals, transition metals

28

metal group on the far left side of the periodic table, exhibit common physical metal properties, lower densities, one electron in their outer shell, largest atomic radii, low ionization and high reactivity, react readily with nonmetals

alkali metals

29

what are some of the alkali metals

hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium

30

second column on periodic table, low electronegativites, two electrons in outer shell, smaller atomic radii, readily lose the electrons to form divalent cations, reactive, hard and shiny

alkaline earth metals

31

what are some of the alkaline earth metals

beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium

32

display characteristic people generally associate with the term metal

basic metals

33

what are some of the basic metals

aluminum, gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, bismuth

34

characterized by partially filled d or f subshells, display multiple oxidation states, some occur in pure form

transition metals

35

the ability of a metal to be hammered into shape

malleability

36

ability of a metal to be drawn into wire

ductility

37

these are good heat and electrical conductors

metals

38

these are located on the upper tight side of the periodic table

nonmetals

39

what are the types of non metals

noble gases, halogens, semimetals

40

aka inert gases, relatively nonreactive, complete valence shell, high ionization energies and negligible electronegativites, low boiling points

noble gases

41

seven valence shell electrons, exhibit highly variable physical properties, range from solid to liquid at room temp, chemical properties are more uniform, high electronegativites, form ionic crystals

halogens

42

exhibit characteristics of both metals and nonmetals, reactivity depends on the element it is reacting with, density and boiling points vary,

semimetals or metalloids

43

what are the two blocks of rare earth metals

lanthanides and actinides