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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (36):
1

Dogmatics

develop theories about the body's functions

2

Emperikos

understand illness by observing sick people

3

empiricism

the belief that accurate knowledge can be observed/acquired through observations.

4

Scientific method

the process of finding the truth using empirical evidence
- develop thoery
- derive hypothesis
- test hypotheis
- test ""
- modify theory

5

theory

a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon

6

The rule of parsimony

An explantion w/ the fewest possible assumptions

7

Hypothesis

A falsifiable predicition made by a theory

8

emperical challenges of people

complexity: 500 million nuerons
variability: no 2 people are the same
reactivity: people respond differently when being observed than not observed.

9

Measurement

define the thing to be measured

10

Operational defintion

Descriptions of a property in measurable terms

11

Instrument

anything that can detect the conditon to which an operational definition refers

12

Validaity

how well your instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

13

Reliablilty

the tendency for your instrument to produce the same measurement each time it is used

14

Power

the instruments ability to detect small magntidues of the property.

15

What is is demand characteristics

aspeccts of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else wants or expects.

16

How can you prevent demand characteristics

- they are anonymous
- they dont know how they should behave
- cover stories: misleading explanations

17

Obserber bias

Expectations can influence observations

18

Frequency distribution

measuruements arranged by # of times each measurement is made

19

Normal distribution

frequency of mesuremt is highest in the middle and decreases symmetrically in both directions

20

Mode

the number that appears the most

21

variable

properties whose values can chage over time and across people

22

correlation

when changes in the value of on variable are synchonrimzed w/changes in the value of another variable

23

correction != caustion T or F

True

24

What is the third variable problem

2 varibales are correclated because each is realted to a 3rd variable

25

What is the difference between the match samples technique and the matched pairs technique

for the matched sample, the participants in 2 groups are identical in terms of a 3rd varibale, but in the matched pair each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a 3rd variable

26

experiement

technique for establishing the causual relationship between variables

27

manipulation

chaning a variable to determ its casual pwer

28

Idependent variable

the variable that is manipulated

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dependent variable

the variable that is measured.

30

random assignment

chance assignes people to the experimental or control group

31

Internnal validity

confidence that experiment is measing what it should do and how it should.

32

External validity

variables have beem properly defined

33

what does APA stand for ?

American Psychological Association

34

What are 4 of the APA guidelines

- informed consent
- freedome from coecion
- protection from harm
- risk benefit analysis
- deception
- debriefing
- confidentiality.

35

What is the Belmont Report

it is a set of ethical guidlines for doing eperiemt on humans

36

Respecting truth points

- report truthfully
- cant fabricate
- cant mislead by omission
- share credit
- obligated to share data. d