Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (36):
develop theories about the body's functions
understand illness by observing sick people
the belief that accurate knowledge can be observed/acquired through observations.
the process of finding the truth using empirical evidence
- develop thoery
- derive hypothesis
- test hypotheis
- test ""
- modify theory
a hypothetical explanation of a natural phenomenon
The rule of parsimony
An explantion w/ the fewest possible assumptions
A falsifiable predicition made by a theory
emperical challenges of people
complexity: 500 million nuerons
variability: no 2 people are the same
reactivity: people respond differently when being observed than not observed.
define the thing to be measured
Descriptions of a property in measurable terms
anything that can detect the conditon to which an operational definition refers
how well your instrument measures what it is supposed to measure
the tendency for your instrument to produce the same measurement each time it is used
the instruments ability to detect small magntidues of the property.
What is is demand characteristics
aspeccts of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think someone else wants or expects.
How can you prevent demand characteristics
- they are anonymous
- they dont know how they should behave
- cover stories: misleading explanations
Expectations can influence observations
measuruements arranged by # of times each measurement is made
frequency of mesuremt is highest in the middle and decreases symmetrically in both directions
the number that appears the most
properties whose values can chage over time and across people
when changes in the value of on variable are synchonrimzed w/changes in the value of another variable
correction != caustion T or F
What is the third variable problem
2 varibales are correclated because each is realted to a 3rd variable
What is the difference between the match samples technique and the matched pairs technique
for the matched sample, the participants in 2 groups are identical in terms of a 3rd varibale, but in the matched pair each participant is identical to one other participant in terms of a 3rd variable
technique for establishing the causual relationship between variables
chaning a variable to determ its casual pwer
the variable that is manipulated
the variable that is measured.
chance assignes people to the experimental or control group
confidence that experiment is measing what it should do and how it should.
variables have beem properly defined
what does APA stand for ?
American Psychological Association
What are 4 of the APA guidelines
- informed consent
- freedome from coecion
- protection from harm
- risk benefit analysis
What is the Belmont Report
it is a set of ethical guidlines for doing eperiemt on humans