Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology: A Living Language Sixth Edition > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (166):
1

Body organization levels

-Cells
-Tissues
-Organs
-Systems
-Body

2

Comprised of systems

Body

3

Comprised of organs

System

4

Comprised of tissues

Organ

5

Comprised of cells

Tissue

6

Abdomen

Abdomin/o

7

Fat

adip/o

8

Front

anter/o

9

Arm

brachi/o

10

Heart

cardi/o

11

Tail

caud/o

12

Head

cephal/o

13

Neck

cervic/o

14

Cartilage

chondr/o

15

Skull

crani/o

16

To secrete

crin/o

17

Leg

crur/o

18

Cell

cyt/o

19

Skin

dermat/o

20

Away from

dist/o

21

Back of body

dors/o

22

Small intestine

Enter/o

23

Epithelium

Epitheli/o

24

Stomach

Gastr/o

25

Buttock

Glute/o

26

Woman

Gynec/o

27

Blood

Hemat/o

28

Tissue

Hist/o

29

Protection

Immun/o

30

Below

Inter/o

31

Larynx

Laryng/o

32

Side

Later/o

33

Loin

Lumb/o

34

Lymph

Lymph/o

35

Middle

Medi/o

36

Muscle

muscul/o

37

Kidney

nephr/o

38

Nerve

neur/o

39

Eye

Ophthalm/o

40

Straight, upright

Orth/o

41

Ear

ot/o

42

Cavity Wall

pariet/o

43

Foot

ped/o

44

Pelvis

pelv/o

45

Peritoneum

peritone/o

46

Pleura

pleur/o

47

Back

poster/o

48

Rectum and anus

proct/o

49

Near to

proxim/o

50

Genital region

pub/o

51

Lung

Pulmon/o

52

Nose

Rhin/o

53

Spine

Spin/o

54

Above

super/o

55

Chest

thorac/o

56

Urine

ur/o
urin/o

57

Blood Vessel

vascul/o

58

Belly

ventr/o

59

Vertebrae

vertebr/o

60

Internal organ

viscer/o

61

The study of cells and their function

Cyt/o + logy

62

Fundamental Life Unit
Has all properties of being alive
-responds to stimuli
-engages in metabolic activity
-reproduces itself
Forms all tissue and organs

Cells

63

Cells perform functions of

Reproduction
Hormone Secretion
Energy Production
Excretion
*Special Cells*
Muscle contraction
Electrical impulse transmission

64

All cells contain...

A nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane

65

The study of tissue

hist/o + logy

66

Formed when like cells are grouped together to perform an activity

Tissue

67

4 types of Tissue

Muscular
Epithelial
Connective
Nervous

68

Provides movement in the body by contracting
Composed of individual muscle cells called muscle fibers

Muscular Tissue

69

3 types of Muscles

Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle

70

Muscles attached to bones

Skeletal Muscle

71

Muscles of the internal organs and uterus

Smooth Muscle

72

Special kind of muscle found only in the heart

Cardiac Muscle

73

Known as epithelium
Found as lining for internal organs and covering for the skin
Close packed cells that function to:
-form a protective barrier (skin)
-absorb (lining of intestine)
-secrete (sweat glands)
-excrete wastes (kidney tubules)

Epithelial Tissue

74

Supports and protects
Function depends on location
Different forms
-adipose
-bone
-cartilage
-tendons

Connective Tissue

75

Comprised of cells called neurons
Forms the brain, spinal cord and nerves
Allows for conduction of electrical impulses between brain and rest of the body

Nervous Tissue

76

Composed of several types of tissue
Work together as a unit
Composed of several organs working together coordinated
Perform complex functions

ie. Stomach contains: muscle tissue, nerve tissues and epithelial tissue

Organs and Systems

77

Two way barrier and temperature regulation

Organs: skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands

Integumentary System

78

Supports and protects the body, forms blood cells, stores minerals

Organs: bones, joints

Muscles produce movement

Organs: muscles

Musculoskeletal System

79

Pumps blood to transport nutrients, oxygen and wastes

Organs: heart, arteries, veins

Cardiovascular System

80

Transports oxygen, protects, and controls bleeding

Organs: plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets

Hematic System (blood)

81

Protects body

Organs: Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus gland, tonsils

Lymphatic System

82

Obtained oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Organs: lungs, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes

Respiratory System

83

Ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients

Organs: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, liver and gallbladder, pancreas

Digestive or Gastrointestinal System

84

Filters waste and removes from body

Organs: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

Urinary System

85

Produces eggs and provides place for baby

Organs: ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, breast

Female Reproductive System

86

Produces Sperm

Organs: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands

Male Reproductive System

87

Regulates Metabolic Activity

Organs: pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes

Endocrine System

88

Receives sensory information and coordinates response

Organs; brain, spinal cord, nerves

Nervous System

89

Vision

Organs: eye

Sense of sight

90

Hearing and Balance

Organs: ears

sense of hearing

91

Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

Cardi/o + vascul/o + -ar

92

Pertaining to muscles

muscul/o + -ar

93

Pertaining to lymph

Lymph/o + -atic

94

Pertaining to blood

hemat/o + -ic

95

Medical specialty for Integumentary System

Dermatology

96

Medical specialty for Musculoskeletal System

Orthopedics
Orthopedic Surgery

97

Medical specialty for Endocrine System

Endocrinology

98

Medical specialty for cardiovascular system

Cardiology

99

Medical specialty for blood

Hematology

100

Medical specialty for lymphatic System

Immunology

101

Medical specialty for respiratory system

Otorrhinolaryngology
Pulmonology
Thoracic Surgery

102

Medical specialty for digestive system

Gastroenterology
Proctology

103

Medical specialty for urinary System

Urology

104

Medical specialty for female reproductive system

Gynecology
Obstetrics

105

Medical specialty for male reproductive system

Urology

106

Medical specialty for nervous system

Neurology
Neurosurgery

107

Medical specialty for eyes

Ophthalmology

108

Medical specialty for ears

Otorhinolaryngologist

109

Study of stomach and small intestine

Gastr/o + enter/o + -logy

110

Study of the female

Gynec/o + logy

111

Correct Anatomical Position

Standing Erect
Arms at the side
Palms facing forward
Eyes straight ahead
Legs are parallel
Feet and toes pointing forward

112

The body is divided into 3 planes

Sagittal
Frontal
Transverse

113

Called median plane

Vertical plane
Runs lengthwise from front to back
Divides body into left and right portions

Sagittal Plane

Cut along the sagittal plane yields a sagittal section

114

Also called coronal plane

Vertical plane

Runs lengthwise from side to side
Divides body into front and back positions

Frontal Plane

Cut along the frontal plane yields a frontal section or coronal section

115

Also called horizontal plane

Crosswise Plane, runs parallel to the ground
Divides body into upper and lower portions

Transverse Plane

Cut along the transverse Plane yields a transverse section

116

Produced by slice perpendicular to long axis of structure

Cross-Section

117

Produced by lengthwise slice along long axis of structure

Longitudinal Section

118

Arm

Brachial

119

Head

Cephalic

120

Neck

Cervical

121

Leg

Crural

122

Regions of the Trunk

Anterior Trunk
-thoracic (chest)
-abdominal
-pelvic
-pubic (genitals)

Posterior Trunk
-dorsum (Back)
-vertebral
-gluteal (buttocks)

123

Body Cavities

Two Dorsal
-cranial cavity (contains brain)
-spinal cavity (contains spine)

Two ventral
-thoracic cavity
-abdominopelvic cavity

124

contains two lungs
central mediastinum that contains; heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea And thymus gland

thoracic cavity

125

Separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm
Superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity
Contains digestive, excretory and reproductive organs

Abdominopelvic Cavity

126

Double layered membranous sac in thoracic cavity

Pleura

127

Double layered membranous sac in abdominopelvic cavity

Peritoneum

128

Outer layer that lines cavities

Parietal layer

129

Inner layer that contracts viscera

Visceral layer

130

Subdivisions of Pleura

Pleural Cavity (surrounds lungs)
Pericardial Cavity (surrounds heart)

131

Division of the abdomen

Upper Row
-hypochondriac
-epigastric
Middle Row
-lumbar
-umbilical
Lower Row
-inguinal
-hypogastric

132

Contains:
Majority of liver
Gallbladder
Small portion of pancreas
Small intestine
Colon

RUQ Right Upper Quadrant

133

Contains:
Small intestine
Colon
Right ovary
Right Fallopian tube
Appendix
Right Ureter

RLW Right Lower Quadrant

134

Contains:
Small portion of liver
Spleen
Stomach
Majority of pancreas
Small intestine
Colon

LUQ Left Upper Quadrant

135

Contains:
Small intestine
Colon
Left ovary
Left Fallopian tube
Left Ureter

LLQ Left Lower Quadrant

136

More towards head

Superior or Cephalic

137

More Towards Feet

Inferior or Caudal

138

More towards front or belly-side of body

Anterior or ventral

139

More towards Back or spinal cord side of body

Posterior or dorsal

140

More towards middle

Medial

141

More towards side

Lateral

142

Nearer to the point of attachment to body

Proximal

143

Farther away from point of attachment to body

Distal

144

Tip or summit of organ

Apex

145

Bottom or lower part of organ

Base

146

More towards surface of body

Superficial

147

Further away from surface of body

Deep

148

Lying horizontal facing upward

Supine

149

Laying horizontal facing downward

Prone

150

Pertaining to being above

Super/o + -ior

151

Pertaining to the side

Later/o + -al

152

Anteroposterior abbreviation

AP

153

cardiovascular abbreviation

CV

154

Ear nose and throat abbreviation

ENT

155

Gastrointestinal abbreviation

GI

156

Gynecology abbreviation

GYN

157

Lateral abbreviation

lat

158

Lower extremity (leg) abbreviation

LE

159

Left Lower Quadrant abbreviation

LLQ

160

Left Upper Quadrant abbreviation

LUQ

161

Right Upper Quadrant abbreviation

RUQ

162

Right Lower Quadrant Abbreviation

RLQ

163

Musculoskeletal abbreviation

MS

164

Obstetrics abbreviation

OB

165

Posteroanterior abbreviation

PA

166

Upper extremity (arm) abbreviation

UE