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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (77):
1

Anatomic Reference Systems

Locations of the structural units of the body

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Anatomy

Study of the structures of the body

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Physiology

Study of the functions, of the structures of the body

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Anatomic Position

Standard position

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Body Planes

Imaginary vertical and horizontal lines, used to divide the body into sections

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Sagittal Plane

Vertical plan that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

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Midsagittal Plane

Midline; divides body into equal left and right halves

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Frontal Plane

Vertical Plane that divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

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Transverse Plane

Horizontal Plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

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Ventral

Front; belly side

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Dorsal

Back side

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Cephalic

Toward the head

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Caudal

Toward lower part of body

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Proximal

Situated nearest midline

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Distal

Situated furthest from midline

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Medial

Toward, nearer to midline

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Lateral

Toward, nearer the side of the body

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Dorsal Cavity

Located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions

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Ventral Cavity

Located along the front of the body, contains the organs that sustain homeostasis

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Homeostasis

Processes through which the body maintains of constant internal environment

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Thoracic Cavity

Chest cavity

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Abdominal Cavity

Contains major organs of digestion

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Pelvic Cavity

Space formed by the hip bones and contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

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Abdominopelvic Cavity

Refers to both the abdominal and pelvic cavities

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Inguinal

Relating to the groin, refers to entire lower area of the abdomen

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Right and Left Hypochondriac Regions

Below the ribs

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Epigastric Region

Located above the stomach

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Right and Left Lumbar Regions

Part of the back between the ribs and the pelvis

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Umbilical Region

Surrounds the umbilicus (belly button)

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Right and Left Iliac Regions

Located near hip bones

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Hypogastric Region

Below the stomach

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Peritoneum

Multilayered membrane, that protects and hold the organs in place within the abdominal cavity

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Parietal Peritoneum

Outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

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Visceral Peritoneum

Inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

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Retroperitoneal

Means located behind the peritoneum

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Cells

Basic structural and functional units of the body

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Cytology

The study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell

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Stem Cells

Unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

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Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells)

Undifferentiated Cells in a tissue or organ

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Gene

Fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity

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Dominant Gene

Offspring will inherit

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Recessive Gene

Offspring has to inherit from both parents to have

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Genetic Disorder (Hereditary Disorder)

Pathological condition cause by an absence of defective gene

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Tissue

Group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to preform certain specific functions

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Histology

Microscopic study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues

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Epithelial Tissue

Forms a protective covering for all the internal and external surfaces of the body

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Epithelium

Specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes

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Endothelium

Specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

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Connective Tissue

Support and connect organs and other body tissues

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Muscle Tissue

Contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax

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Nerve Tissue

Contains cells with the specialized ability to read to stimuli and to to conduct electrical impulses

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Aplasia

Defective development or the congenital absence of an organ or tissue

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Dysplasia

Abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs

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Gland

Group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions

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Exocrine Glands

Secret chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

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Endocrine Glands

Produce hormones

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Adenitis

Inflammation of a gland

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Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumor that originated in glandular tissue

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Adenoma

Benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue

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Adenosclerosis

Abnormal hardening of a gland

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Organ

Somewhat independent part of the body that performs a specific function

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Pathology

Study of disease

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Pathogen

Diseases-producing microorganism

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Bloodborne Transmission

Spread of a disease through contact with infected blood or other bodily fluids

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Droplet Transmission

Spread of diseases through large respiratory droplets

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Airborne Transmission

Occurs through contact with germs floating in the air

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Foodborne and Waterborne Transmission (Fecal-Oral Transmission)

Caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water

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Epidemiologist

Specialist that studies outbreaks of disease

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Endemic

Ongoing presence of a disease sighing a population, group, or area

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Epidemic

Sudden and wide-spread outbreak of disease within a specific population group or area

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Pandemic

An outbreak of disease occurring over a large geographic area

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Iatrogenic Illness

Unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment

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Nosocomial Infection

Disease acquired in a hospital or clinic setting

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Congenital Disorder

Abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth

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Developmental Disorder (Birth Defect)

Can result in anomaly or malformation

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Atresia

Congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular

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Hospitalist

Physician focusing on the general medical care of the hospitalized patients