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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (105):
1

Biochemistry

The study of the molecules and chemical reactions that occur in living cells

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Neutron

An uncharged particle found in the nucleus of the atom

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Proton

An positively charged particle found in the nucleus of the atom

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Electron

An negatively charged particle found outside the nucleus of the atom

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Iso

Same

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Isotope

Two or more of the same elements having equal amount of protons but different amount of neutrons in their nucleus

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Ion

Any atom or molecule with a charge, due to the loss or gain of electron

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Cation

A positively charged ion because it has lost an electron

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Anion

A negatively charged ion because it has gained an electron

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Molecule

Composed of one or more than one element

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Compound

A molecule composed of two or more different elements

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Isomer

A molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure

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Molecular Weight

Equal to the sum of the atomic weights, measured in atomic mass units (AMU), and is useful for calculating concentrations

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Element

The simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties

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Mineral

inorganic element extracted from the soil by plants and passed up the food chain to humans and other organisms

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Biological Half-life

The time required for half of it to disappear from the body

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Electrolyte

Substances that ionize in water (acids, bases, or salts) and form solutions capable of conducting electricity

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Free Radical

Chemical particles with an odd number of electrons

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Antioxidant

A chemical that neutralizes free radicals

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Chemical Bond

Forces by which a molecule is held together, and molecules are attracted to one another

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Ionic Bond

A strong attraction between a cation and an anion

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Covalent Bond

Formed by the sharing of electrons between two atoms

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Hydrogen Bond

A weak attraction between a slightly positive region in one molecule and a slightly negative region in a different molecule

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Basic Structure of an Amino Acid

A central carbon atom (Radical) with an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group

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Chemical Reaction

A process that involves the formation or breakdown of molecules

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Decomposition Reaction

A larger molecule is broken down into smaller parts

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Synthesis Reaction

Two or more smaller molecules combine into a larger one

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Exchange Reaction

Atoms are traded between molecules

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Dehydration Synthesis

Two or more smaller molecules combine into a larger one

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Catabolism

Consists of energy-releasing (exergonic) decomposition reactions

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Anabolism

Consists of energy-storing (endergonic) synthesis reactions

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Carbon

The foundation of biological molecules

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Macromolecule

Any molecule of large size and high molecular weight, such as a protein or starch

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Monomer

The identical or similar subunits of a larger molecule

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Examples of a Carbohydrate

Monosaccharide, Disaccharide, Polysaccharide

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Glucose

Known as blood sugar, C6H12O6

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Glycogen

The polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals

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Starch

The only plant polysaccharide that humans can digest

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Glycolipid

A phospholipid molecule covalently bonded to a carbohydrate

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Fatty Acid

Contain both a carboxyl group and a methyl group

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Triglyceride

A lipid composed of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol

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Phospholipid

A lipid that consists of two hydrophobic fatty acids and a hydrophilic phosphate head

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Amino Acid

The monomeric subunits that make up a protein

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Peptide Bond

The type of bond that holds amino acids together in a protein molecule

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Primary Structure

The protein's sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

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Secondary Structure

Alpha helix or beta sheet formed by hydrogen bonding

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Tertiary Structure

Folding and coiling due to inactions among R groups and between R groups and surrounding water

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Quaternary Structure

Association of two or more polypeptide chains with each other

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The energy molecule that is produced by cellular respiration and used in metabolic reactions

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Law of Mass Action

States that reactions proceed from the side of the reaction with the greater quantity to the side with the lesser quantity

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Oxidation-reduction Reaction

A chemical reaction in which electrons are transferred between molecules

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Chemical Energy

Potential energy stored in the bonds of molecules

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The energy molecule that is produced by cellular respiration and used in metabolic reactions

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Lipid

Hydrophobic organic molecules, such as fatty acids, fats, steroids, and prostaglandins

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Steroid

The general term for a lipid molecule that consists of four interconnected carbon rings, examples are cholesterol, testosterone, or estrogen

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Enzyme

A protein that functions as a biological catalyst, speed up reaction rates by lowering the activation energy of a specific reaction, are not consumed in the reactions they catalyze, show enzyme-substrate specificity

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Nucleotides

Composed of a nitrogenous base, a monosaccharide, and a phosphate group

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Nucleic Acid

An acidic polymer of nucleotides, found or produced in the nucleus, that functions in heredity and protein synthesis

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

The largest of polymers of nucleotides

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Monosaccharide

Referred as a simple sugar, or sugar monomer

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Saturated Fatty Acid

A fatty acid containing as many hydrogen as possible and in which the carbon bonds are all single bonds

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Adipose Tissue

A type of connective tissue that provides energy storage, thermal insulation, and protective cushioning

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Denaturation

A change in three-dimensional conformation of a protein that destroys its functional properties

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Phosphorylation

The addition of an inorganic phosphate to an organic molecule

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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

A fatty acid that has two or more double bonds within its carbon chain

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Glycoprotein

A protein molecule with a smaller carbohydrate covalently bonded to it

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Essential Fatty Acid

A fatty acid that must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot synthesize them

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Substrate

The substance upon which an enzyme acts

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Condensation Reaction

A water molecule is removed from a molecule when it creates a covalent bond

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Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)

A molecule that is produced from ATP and which often serves as a second messenger

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Alpha Helix

A secondary structure of protein that has a spiral shape

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Beta Sheet

A secondary structure of protein that is a ribbon-like shape

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Glycoprotein

A protein molecule bonded to a smaller carbohydrate molecule

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Cholesterol

A steroid that is a precursor for all other steroids in the body

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Activation Energy

The energy required to initiate or begin a chemical reaction

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Factors that Affect Enzyme Conformation

pH and Temperature

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Kinase

Any enzyme that adds an inorganic phosphate (PI) group to another organic molecule

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Proteins

Act as receptors on cells' surfaces, catalyze chemical reactions, make up molecules that can transport oxygen

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Active Site

The substrate-binding site of an enzyme

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Energy

The capacity to do work

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Potential Energy

Energy contained in an object because of its position or internal state

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Kinetic Energy

Energy that is doing work

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Free Energy

All potential energy available in a system

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Functional Group

Groups of atoms that are added to carbon backbones and that give organic molecules a variety of unique properties

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Metabolic Pathway

A series of reactions, where each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme

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Polysaccharide

A complex carbohydrate as it is a polymer of simple sugars, examples are glycogen, starch, and cellulose

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Catalyst

Substance that lowers the activation energy of the reaction and speed up the rate of reaction, may bind to reactants and bring them into proximity, may position reactants in such as a way as to favor their reaction, they are not consumed by the reaction

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Enzyme-substrate Complex

The structure formed by the combining of the enzyme and its specific substrate

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Hydrolysis

The chemical reaction that breaks a covalent bond in a. molecule by adding an OH group to one side of the bond and H to the other side, thus consuming a water molecule

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Ligand

A chemical that binds reversibly to a receptor site on a protein, such as a neurotransmitter that binds a membrane receptor, or a substrate that binds to an enzyme

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Radioactivity

When an unstable atomic nuclei breaks down, releasing particles and energy

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Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP)

A nucleotide involved in energy transfers, which may donate a phosphate to help regenerate ATP

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Prostaglandin

An eicosanoid that is a modified fatty acid with a single five-carbon ring

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Trace Element

An element that plays a physiological role in the body, but which accounts for less than 0.02% of the body weight

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Valence Electron

Determine the reactive properties of an atom

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Substrate

An organic cofactor that is required for an enzyme to function

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Ionizing Radiation

A general term for radiation capable of converting atoms to ions or free radicals

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Radioactivity

The process of energy being released from the decay of unstable radioisotopes

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Cellulose

The structural polysaccharide found in plant cells

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Physical Half-life

The time required for one-half of a quantity of a radioactive element to decay to a stable isotope

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Amphipathic

Contains a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region

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Reducing Agent

A molecule that is oxidized in an oxidation-reduction reaction

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Proteoglycan

A molecule composed predominantly of a carbohydrate covalently bonded to a smaller protein component

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Oxidizing Agent

A molecule that is reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction

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Conformation

The overall three-dimensional shape of a protein