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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (19):

Classical viewpoint of the historical perspective on management

Emphasis on ways to manage work more efficiently (1911-1947)


Behavioral viewpoint of the historical perspectives on managment

Emphasis on importance of understand human behavior and motivations and encouraging employees toward achievement (1913-1950s)
Developed over early behaviorism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science


Quantitative viewpoint of the historical perspective of management

Applies quantitative techniques to management such as statistics ad computer simulations


Scientific managment

Emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers
Fredrick Taylor, frank and Lillian gilbreth


Administrative Managment

Concerned with managing the total organization
Henri Fayol: French engineer, first to identify major functions of management


Hawthorne effect (Elton Mayo)

Employees worked harder if they received added attention, thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them


Mary Parker Follett

Social worker and social philosopher
Organizations should be operated as “communities”
Conflicts should be resolved by managers talking over their differences and find solutions
The work process should be under control of workers with relevant knowledge


Hugo Munsterberg

Father of industrial psychology
Study jobs and determine who is best suited to specific jobs
Identify physiological conditions where employees do their best
Devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management interests



Well defined hierarchy of authority
Formal rules and procedures
Clear division of labor
Careers based on merit


Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (5)

Self-actual inaction


Theory X

Pessimistic, negative view of workers
Workers are irresponsible, resistant to change, lack ambition, hate work, and want to be led


Theory Y

Optimistic,positive view of workers
Workers are considered capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, self control, and being creative


Systems viewpoint of the contemporary perspective

Regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose
Collection of subsystems
Part of the larger environment


Contingency viewpoint of the contemporary perspective

Emphasizes that managers approach should vary according to the individual and environmental situations
Most practical because it addresses problems on a case by case basis


What are the three approaches to the quality management viewpoint of the contemporary perspective?

TQM- comprehensive approach dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction
Quality assurance- focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for “zero deficits”
Quality control- strategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of production


What is the difference between an open system viewpoint and a closed system viewpoint?

Open system- continually interacts with its environment
Closed System- has little interaction with its environment


Evidence based management

Translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision making process
Pfeffer and Sutton


Learning organization

Organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfer knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge


What are the three key functions to creating a learning organization

Build a commitment to learning
Work to generate ideas with impact
Work to generalize ideas with impact