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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (23):

Name 4 major theoretical viewpoints about human development and name one major theorist or researcher associated with each.

Psychoanalytic - Freud, Erikson
Learning Perspective - Watson, Skinner, Bandura
Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget
Systems Theory - Bronfenbrenner


State the opposing viewpoints of nature vs. nurture.

With nature differences of development among individuals are largely because of genetic makeup, maturational processes, genes and biological predispositions.
With nature influences outside the person including the physical and social environment affect the development path an individual takes.


State the opposing viewpoints of activity vs. passivity.

With activity, an individual is actively producing their own environment by actively exploring the world around them.
With passivity, the individual is shaped by the forces beyond their control.


State the opposing viewpoints of universality vs. context specificity.

With universality, developmental changes are common to all human beings.
With context specificity, development is varied because it is influenced by contextual factors such as culture, subcultures, etc.


State the opposing viewpoints of continuity vs. discontinuity.

With continuity, development process occurs in small steps with no sudden changes. Quantitative changes.
With discontinuity, development is like stair steps with each one elevating the individual to a new level of functioning. Qualitative changes.


What are 2 related meanings of discontinuity in development?

Development changes are abrupt.
Development changes are qualitative; the changes make the individual fundamentally different than before.


According to Freud, how does a mature healthy person achieve a dynamic balance between id, ego and super ego?

The id communicates its basic needs, ego restrains the impulsive id to come up with a way to satisfy those needs and the super ego determines if there is a way to satisfy the needs in a morally acceptable way.


How is positive reinforcement different from negative reinforcement? How are they alike?

Both positive and negative reinforcement strengthen a behavior. With positive reinforcement, the behavior is strengthened due to a desirable consequence. With negative reinforcement, the behavior is strengthened to avoid the negative consequence (i.e. if you don't study for 2 hours, you will lose video game privileges).


Explain Bandura's ideas about reciprocal determinism.

Bandura believed that individuals are shaped by a continuous reciprocal interaction among the person's biological makeup, his own behavior and his environment. People build, choose and change their own environments.


Why is Piaget's theory considered a stage theory?

An individual goes through 4 periods of development and they will progress through each period in the order of the periods without regression backwards.


Describe Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.

Cognitive development is shaped by the sociocultural context in which it occurs and grows out of a child's interaction with members of their own culture. Culture shapes thought.


What metaphor is used in the information processing approach to describe the human brain?

Likens the human mind to a computer with hardware and software.


Explain systems theory

The individual and the physical and social contexts with which he interacts are inseparable parts of the larger system in which everything affects everything else.


Name, define and give an example of each of the 5 environmental systems in Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model.

1. Microsystem - immediate physical and social environment; face to face interactions; primary system.
2. Mesosystem - interrelationships between 2 or more microsystems. What happens in one system can influence the other microsystem.
3. Exosystem - social settings not experienced directly (i.e. parents stress at work, neighborhood issues)
4. Macrosystem - larger cultural or societal context in which all other systems are embedded.
5. Chronosystem - time dimension; changes over time


Who are the stage theorists and what do they believe?

Freud, Erikson, Piaget
Development is guided in certain universal directions by biological-maturational forces. Human progress through distinct or discontinuous stages that are universal and lead to the same final state of maturity.


Who are the learning theorists and what do they believe?

Watson, Skinner, Bandura
Emphasizes the role of the environment more than the role of biological forces.


Who are the system theorists and what do they believe?

View biology and environment as inseparable.


Developmental stage

A distinct phase of development characterized by a particular set of abilities, motives, emotions and behaviors.



Behavior that is ignored or no longer reinforced.



The tendency to imitate every detail they see a model do even if the action is useless.



Piaget - children actively construct their own understandings of the world based on their interactions with it.


Psychosexual stages

Freud - Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital


Psychosocial stages

Erikson -
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Integrity vs. despair