Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Evolution Deck (93):
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Rostral / Anterior

A directional term meaning toward the head of a four legged animal

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Caudal / posterior

A directional term meaning toward the tail of a four legged animal

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Inferior / ventral

A directional term meaning toward the belly of a four legged animal

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Superior / dorsal

A directional term meaning toward the back of a four legged animal

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Neuraxis

An imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain

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Midline

An imaginary line dividing the body into two equal halves

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Ipsilateral

A directional term referring to structures on the same side as the midline

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Contralateral

A directional term referring to structures on opposite sides of the midline

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Medial

A directional term meaning toward the midline

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Lateral

A directional term meaning away from the midline

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Proximal

A directional term that means closer to the centre; usually applied to limbs; opposite of distal

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Distal

A directional term meaning farther away from another structure usually in reference to the limbs

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Coronal section

An anatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the face also known as frontal section

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Sagittal section (SAN-hi-tuhl)

An anatomical section that is parallel to the midline

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Midsagittal section

A Sagittal section that divides the brain into two approximately equal halves

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Horizontal/ axial section (AX-ee-uhl)

An anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom

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Meninges

The layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves

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Dura mater

The outermost of the three layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems

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Arachnoid layer

The middle layer of meninges covering the central nervous system

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Pia mater

The innermost of the layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems

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Subarachnoid space

A space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in the central nervous system

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Meningitis

An infection of the meninges

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Cerebrospinal fluid

The special plasmalike fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space

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Ventricle

One of four hollow spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid

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Choroid plexus

The lining of the ventricles, which secretes the cerebrospinal fluid

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Central canal

The small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid

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Carotid artery

One of the two major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain

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Vertebral artery

One of the important blood vessels that enter the brain from the back of the skull

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Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

The nerves exiting the brain and spinal cord that serve sensory and motor functions for the rest of the body

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Spinal Cord

A long cylinder of nervous tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumber vertebra

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Vertebral column

The bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord

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Cervical nerve

One of the first eight spinal nerves that serve the area of the head neck and arms

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Thoracic nerve

One of the twelve pairs of spinal nerves that serve the torso

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Lumbar nerve

One of the five spinal nerves serving the lower back and legs

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Sacral nerve

One of the five spinal nerves that serve the backs of the legs and genitals

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Coccygeal nerve

The most caudal of the spinal nerves

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White matter

An area of neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons

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Gray matter

An area of neural tissue primarily made up of cell bodies

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Dorsal horns

Gray matter in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons

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Ventral horns

Gray matter in the spinal cord that contains motor neurons

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Reflex

An involuntary action or response

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Patellar reflex

The knee jerk reflex; a spinal reflex in which tapping below the knee produces s reflexive contraction of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh causing the foot to kick

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Withdrawal reflex

A spinal reflex that pulls a body part away from the source of pain

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Hindbrain

The most caudal division of the brain, including the medulla, pons and cerebellum

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Midbrain

The division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain

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Forebrain

The division of the brain containing the diencephalon and the telencephalon

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Brain stem

The lower two thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain

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Myelencephalon / medulla

The most caudal part of the hindbrain

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Metencephalon

The division of the hindbrain containing the pons and cerebellum

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Nuclei

Collections of cell bodies that share a function

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Reticular formation

A collection of brainstem nuclei, located near the midline from the rostral medulla up to the midbrain, that regulate sleep and arousal

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Pons

A structure located in the Metencephalon between the medulla and midbrain; part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain

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Cerebellum

A structure located in the Metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination, some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans

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Cochlear nucleus

A nucleus found in the pons that received information about sound from the inner ear

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Vestibular nucleus

A group of cell bodies in the pons that receive input about the location and movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear

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Raphe nuclei

Nuclei located in the pons that participate in the regulation of sleep and arousal

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Locus coeruleus

A structure in the pons that participates in arousal

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Mesencephalon

Another term for midbrain, the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain

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Tectum

The "roof", or dorsal half of the midbrain

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Tegmentum

The "covering" or ventral half of the midbrain

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Cerebral aqueduct

The small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles

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Periaqueductal gray

Gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain

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Red nucleus

A structure located within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and cerebellum

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Substantia nigra

Midbrain nuclei that communicate with the basal ganglia of the forebrain

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Superior colliculi

A pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that coordinate visually guided movements and visual reflexes

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Inferior colliculi

A pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that process auditory information

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Diencephalon

A division of the forebrain made up of the hypothalamus and the thalamus

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Telencephalon

The division of the brain comprising the cerebral hemispheres

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Cerebral hemisphere

One of the two large, globular structures that make up the telencephalon of the forebrain

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Thalamus

A structure in the diencephalon that processes sensory information, contributes to states of arousal, and participates in learning and memory

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Hypothalamus

A structure found in the diencephalon that participates in the regulation of hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and aggression; part of the limbic system

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Pituitary gland

A gland located just above the roof of the mouth that is connected to the hypothalamus and serves as a major source of hormones

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Basal ganglia

A collection of nuclei within the cerebral hemispheres that participate in the control of movement

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Caudate nucleus

One of the major nuclei that make up the basal ganglia

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Putamen

One of the nuclei contained in the basal ganglia

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Globus pallidus

One of the nuclei making up the basal ganglia

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Subthalamic nucleus

A small nucleus, located ventral to the thalamus that is part of the basal ganglia

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Limbic system

A collection of forebrain structures that participate in emotional behaviour and learning

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Hippocampus

A structure deep within the cerebral hemispheres that is involved with the formation of long term declarative memories; part of the limbic system

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Amygdala

An almond shaped structure in the rostral temporal lobes that is part of the limbic system

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Cingulate cortex

A segment of older cortex just dorsal to the corpus callosum that is part of the limbic system

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Septal area

An area anterior to the thalamus and hypothalamus that is often included as part of the limbic system

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Olfactory bulb

A structure extending from the ventral surface of the brain that processes the sense of smell; part of the limbic system

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Parahippocampal gyrus

A fold of tissue near the hippocampus that is often included in the limbic system

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Mammillary body

One of two bumps on the ventral surface of the brain that participate in memory and are included in the limbic system

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Fornix

A fiber pathway connecting the hippocampus and mammillary bodies that is often included in the limbic system

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Gyrus/gyri

One of the "hills" on the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex

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Sulcus/sulci

A "valley"in the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex

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Fissure

A large sulcus

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Granule cell

A small type of cell found in layers II and IV of the cerebral cortex

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Pyramidal cell

A large triangular cell found in layers III and V of the cerebral cortex

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Loves

One of the four lines of the brain