Chapter 2- Atomic Theory of Matter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Atomic Theory of Matter Deck (55):
1

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS

Matter is not created or destroyed.

When chemical reactions occur, atoms simply rearrange

2

LAW OF CONSTANT COMPOSTION

A compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass

3

LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS

When two (or more) elements form more than one compound, the masses of the second element combining with a fixed mass of the first are found to be in ratios of whole-numbers.

4

The __________ is mostly empty space

Atom

5

The nucleus is ___________ charged.

positively

6

________ of the atom’s mass is found in the positively charged nucleus

99.95%

7

neutral charge =
positive charge =
negative charge =

neutron 0
proton +1
electron -1

8

Atomic theory

An explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles

9

Element

a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom

10

compound

A type of matter composed of 2 or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions

11

atom

- An extremely small particles of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions
- made of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Building blocks of elements, molecules.

12

nucleus

- atoms central core
- positively charged
- contains most of atoms mass

13

electron

-negatively charged -1
-Exist around the atoms positively charged nucleus

14

proton

- positively charged +1
- equal but opposite charge of electron

15

Atomic number

number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

16

Element

a substance who's atoms all have the same atomic number

17

Neutron

a nuclear particle having a mass almost identical to that of the proton but no electric charge

18

Mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

19

Nuclide

An atom characterized by an atomic number and mass number

20

Isotopes

- Atoms who's nuclei have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
- Same number of protons but different number of neutrons

21

Atomic weight

The average atomic mass for a naturally occurring element

22

Metal

- A substance that has a characteristic luster, or shine.
- Generally a good conductor of heat and electricity

23

nonmetal

An element that does not exhibit the characteristics of a metal

24

Metalliod

An element having both metallic and nonmetallic properties

25

Ion

An electrically charged particle obtained from an atom or chemically bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons

ex: sodium chloride

26

Anion

-An atom that picks up an extra electron
-Negatively charged ion

Ex: Cl------> Cl- (Chlorine-----> Chloride anion)

27

Cation

- An atom that loses an electron
- positively charged ion

Ex: Na -----> Na+ (sodium cation)

28

Ionic compound

-Compound composed of anions and cations
- contains metal and non metal atoms
- You name and Ionic compound by giving the name of a cation followed by the name of an anion
- Electronegativity difference greater than 1.7
- Electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal. The oppositely charged ions attract each other.
- Only empirical formulas are written
Ex: Potassium sulfate

ium= +
ate= -

29

organic compound

Molecular substances that contain carbon combined with other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

30

Hydrocarbon

compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon

Ex: CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, C6H6.

pg. 52

31

Inorganic compound

Composed of elements other than carbon

32

Chemical nomenclature

Systematic naming of chemical compounds

33

Functional group

reactive portion of the molecule that undergoes predictable reactions.

Ex: Alcohol = OH functional group

34

chemical reaction

Rearranges the chemical combinations of atoms

35

Mass Spectrometer

-determines mass of atoms and molecules
-Used in radiodating by measuring abundances of different isotopes: carbon 14 archaeological dating, potassium-argon dating of moon rocks and meteorites, etc.

36

_________ are arranged in increasing atomic number on the periodic table

elements

37

molecules


- have 2 or more atoms
- definite arrangement
- held together by chemical bonds



slide: 40

38

ions

have + or - charges

39

Gives the exact number of different atoms of an element in a molecule

Ex: H20

Molecular Formula

40

ether

Indicates that an organic molecule contains an oxygen atom between 2 carbon atoms

41

monatomic ion

- simplest ion
- ion formed from a single ion

ex: Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-

42

polyatomic ion

contains more than one atom

ex: OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-

43

ionic bonds

responsible for keeping ionic compounds held together

44

main-group metals

- one monatomic ion
- charge equal to the group number.

ex: Al, in Group IIIA, has one ion, Al3+
Sr, in Group IIA, has one ion, Sr2+
K, in Group IA, has one ion, K+

45

Nonmetal main-group elements

- form one monatomic anion
- charge equal to the group number minus 8

ex: F in Group VIIA (17) forms the F- ion
S in Group VIA (16) forms the S2- ion
N in Group VA (15) forms the N3- ion

46

transition metals

- form more than one cation
- When a metal forms more than one cation, the charge is written using a Roman numeral in parentheses.
ex: Cu2+ is copper(II) ex: Cu+ is copper(I).


Zn & Cd form only the +2 ion.

Ag forms only the +1 ion

47

main-group metals with high atomic numbers have =

- more than one cation.
- charge is written using a Roman numeral in parentheses.

ex:

Pb in Group IVA has two ions: Pb2+ and Pb4+

Tl in Group IIIA has two ions: Tl+ and Tl3+

48

Polyatomic Ion

- An ion consisting of two or more atoms chemically bonded together and carrying an electrical charge.

49

Name a common polyatomic cation =

Ammonium

- the rest are anions

50

A ________ molecule contains only two atoms

diatomic molecule

ex:

H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 (elements)

HCl, CO (compounds)

51

A _________ molecule contains more than two atoms

polyatomic

ex:

O3, P4, S8 (elements)

H2O, NH3, CH4 (compounds

52

1. molecular formula

2. empirical formula

1. shows the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a substance.

ex: C6H12O6 , O3

2. shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance

ex: CH2O, O

53

Acids

- ionize to form H+ ions

ex: Hydrogen and chlorine

- As a molecule, HCl is hydrogen chloride

- When put in water, HCl becomes hydrochloric acid

54

Hydrates

- compounds that have a specific number
of water molecules weakly attached to them

ex: CuSO4 · 5H2O = copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate


55

Hydrates: Solve.

Heating removes the water molecules: CuSO4 · 5H2O --------> CuSO4 =

anhydrous copper(II) sulfate