Flashcards in Chapter 2- Atomic Theory of Matter Deck (55):
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
Matter is not created or destroyed.
When chemical reactions occur, atoms simply rearrange
LAW OF CONSTANT COMPOSTION
A compound always contains the same elements in the same proportions by mass
LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
When two (or more) elements form more than one compound, the masses of the second element combining with a fixed mass of the first are found to be in ratios of whole-numbers.
The __________ is mostly empty space
The nucleus is ___________ charged.
________ of the atom’s mass is found in the positively charged nucleus
neutral charge =
positive charge =
negative charge =
An explanation of the structure of matter in terms of different combinations of very small particles
a type of matter composed of only one kind of atom
A type of matter composed of 2 or more elements chemically combined in fixed proportions
- An extremely small particles of matter that retains its identity during chemical reactions
- made of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Building blocks of elements, molecules.
- atoms central core
- positively charged
- contains most of atoms mass
-negatively charged -1
-Exist around the atoms positively charged nucleus
- positively charged +1
- equal but opposite charge of electron
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
a substance who's atoms all have the same atomic number
a nuclear particle having a mass almost identical to that of the proton but no electric charge
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
An atom characterized by an atomic number and mass number
- Atoms who's nuclei have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
- Same number of protons but different number of neutrons
The average atomic mass for a naturally occurring element
- A substance that has a characteristic luster, or shine.
- Generally a good conductor of heat and electricity
An element that does not exhibit the characteristics of a metal
An element having both metallic and nonmetallic properties
An electrically charged particle obtained from an atom or chemically bonded group of atoms by adding or removing electrons
ex: sodium chloride
-An atom that picks up an extra electron
-Negatively charged ion
Ex: Cl------> Cl- (Chlorine-----> Chloride anion)
- An atom that loses an electron
- positively charged ion
Ex: Na -----> Na+ (sodium cation)
-Compound composed of anions and cations
- contains metal and non metal atoms
- You name and Ionic compound by giving the name of a cation followed by the name of an anion
- Electronegativity difference greater than 1.7
- Electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal. The oppositely charged ions attract each other.
- Only empirical formulas are written
Ex: Potassium sulfate
Molecular substances that contain carbon combined with other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon
Ex: CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H2, C6H6.
Composed of elements other than carbon
Systematic naming of chemical compounds
reactive portion of the molecule that undergoes predictable reactions.
Ex: Alcohol = OH functional group
Rearranges the chemical combinations of atoms
-determines mass of atoms and molecules
-Used in radiodating by measuring abundances of different isotopes: carbon 14 archaeological dating, potassium-argon dating of moon rocks and meteorites, etc.
_________ are arranged in increasing atomic number on the periodic table
- have 2 or more atoms
- definite arrangement
- held together by chemical bonds
have + or - charges
Gives the exact number of different atoms of an element in a molecule
Indicates that an organic molecule contains an oxygen atom between 2 carbon atoms
- simplest ion
- ion formed from a single ion
ex: Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-
contains more than one atom
ex: OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-
responsible for keeping ionic compounds held together
- one monatomic ion
- charge equal to the group number.
ex: Al, in Group IIIA, has one ion, Al3+
Sr, in Group IIA, has one ion, Sr2+
K, in Group IA, has one ion, K+
Nonmetal main-group elements
- form one monatomic anion
- charge equal to the group number minus 8
ex: F in Group VIIA (17) forms the F- ion
S in Group VIA (16) forms the S2- ion
N in Group VA (15) forms the N3- ion
- form more than one cation
- When a metal forms more than one cation, the charge is written using a Roman numeral in parentheses.
ex: Cu2+ is copper(II) ex: Cu+ is copper(I).
Zn & Cd form only the +2 ion.
Ag forms only the +1 ion
main-group metals with high atomic numbers have =
- more than one cation.
- charge is written using a Roman numeral in parentheses.
Pb in Group IVA has two ions: Pb2+ and Pb4+
Tl in Group IIIA has two ions: Tl+ and Tl3+
- An ion consisting of two or more atoms chemically bonded together and carrying an electrical charge.
Name a common polyatomic cation =
- the rest are anions
A ________ molecule contains only two atoms
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 (elements)
HCl, CO (compounds)
A _________ molecule contains more than two atoms
O3, P4, S8 (elements)
H2O, NH3, CH4 (compounds
1. molecular formula
2. empirical formula
1. shows the exact number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a substance.
ex: C6H12O6 , O3
2. shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance
ex: CH2O, O
- ionize to form H+ ions
ex: Hydrogen and chlorine
- As a molecule, HCl is hydrogen chloride
- When put in water, HCl becomes hydrochloric acid
- compounds that have a specific number
of water molecules weakly attached to them
ex: CuSO4 · 5H2O = copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate