Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training > Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Skeletal System Deck (75):
1

Skeletal System

The body's framework, composed of bones and joints

2

Bones

Provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs

3

Joints

Junctions of bones, muscles, and connective tissue and which movement occurs

4

3 Factors Affecting the Growth, Maturity, and Functionality of the Skeletal System

Posture, physical activity, nutrition status

5

2 Divisions of Skeletal System

Axial and Appendicular skeletal systems

6

Axial Skeleton

Skull, rib cage, vertebral column

7

# of Bones in Axial Skeleton

80

8

Appendicular Skeleton

Upper and lower extremities as well as shoulder and pelvic girdles

9

# of Bones in Appendicular Skeleton

126

10

Two Functions of Bones in Movement

Leverage, Support

11

Bone Remodeling

The process of resorption and formation of bone

12

Osteoclasts

A type of bone cell that removes bone tissue during resorption

13

Osteoblasts

A type of bone cell that is responsible for bone formation

14

Bone Remodeling and Stress

Follows the lines of stress place on the bone

15

5 Types of Bones

-Long Bones
-Short Bones
-Flat Bones
-Irregular Bones
-Sesamoid Bones

16

Long Bones

Characterized by their long cylindrical body (shaft)

17

Long Bones Make-Up

Predominantly compact bone for strength and stiffness with little spongy bone for shock absorption

18

6 Long Bones of Upper Body

Clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges

19

5 Long Bones of Lower Body

Femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges

20

6 Anatomic Features of a Long Bone

Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Epiphyseal Plate, Periosteum, Medullary Cavity, Articular (hyaline) Cartilage

21

Epiphysis

End of long bone, mainly composed of cancellous bone and bone marrow

22

Diaphysis

Shaft, predominantly compact bone, main role is support

23

Epiphyseal Plate

Region of long bone connecting diaphysis to epiphysis

24

Periosteum

Forms the tough fibrous membrane that coats the bone

25

Medullary Cavity

Central cavity of bone shaft where marrow is stored

26

Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage

Cartilage that covers the articular surface of bones

27

Short Bones

All similar in length and width and appear somewhat cubical in shape

28

Short Bones Make-Up

Predominantly spongy bone tissue for shock absorption

29

Short Bones EXS

Carpals of hand, tarsals of feet

30

Flat Bones

Thin bones compromising two layers of compact bone tissue surrounding a layer of spongy bone tissue

31

Flat Bones Function

Protection of internal surfaces and also provide a broad attachment site for muscles

32

Flat Bones EXS

Sternum, scapulae, ribs, ilium, and cranial bones

33

Irregular Bones

Unique shape and function

34

Irregular Bones EXS

Vertebrae, pelvic bones, and certain facial bones

35

Sesamoid Bones

Small bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint

36

Sesamoid Bones Functions

Improve leverage and protect joints from damage

37

Bone Markings

-Depressions
-Processes

38

Bone Markings Necessity

Increasing the stability in joints and providing attachment for muscles

39

Depressions

Flattened or indented portions of bone, which can be muscle attachment sites
-Fossa and Sulcus

40

Fossa EXS

Supraspinous/infraspinous fossa on shoulder blades

41

Sulcus EXS

A groove in the bone that allows tendons to pass through
-Intertubular Sulcus

42

Processes

Projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons, and ligaments can attach
-Condyles
-Epicondyles
-Tubercles
-Trochanters

43

Condyles

Inner and outer portions at bottom of femur and top of tibia to form knee joint

44

Epicondyles

Inner and outer portions of humerus to help form elbow joint

45

Tubercles

Top of humerus and glenohumeral joint

46

Trochanters

Top of femur

47

Vertebral Column

Series of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae that houses the spinal cord

48

5 Categories of Vertebral Column

-Cervical vertebrae
-Thoracic vertebrae
-Lumbar vertebrae
-Sacrum
-Coccyx

49

Cervical Vertebrae

First 7 vertebrae starting at top of spinal column (C1-C7)

50

Thoracic Vertebrae

Next 12 vertebrae located in upper and middle back (T1-T12)

51

Lumbar Vertebrae

5 vertebrae below thoracic (L1-L5)
-Largest bones in spinal column

52

Sacrum

Triangular bone just below lumbar (S1-S5 fused)

53

Coccyx

Tailbone (3-5 bones)

54

Intervertebral Discs

Fibrous cartilage that act as shock absorbers and allow back to move, inbetween vertebrae

55

3 Major Curvatures of the Back

Posterior cervical curvature: A concavity of the cervical spine

Anterior thoracic curvature: A convexity of the thoracic spine

Posterior lumbar curvature: A concavity of the lumbar spine

56

Arthrokinematics

Joint Motion

57

3 Major Joint Motion Types

Rolling motion, sliding motion, spinning motion

58

Classification of Joints

Synovial joints and Nonsynovial joints

59

Synovial Joints (6)

Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body
-Gliding, Condyloid, Hinge, Saddle, Pivot, Ball-and-Socket

60

Gliding Joint

Nonaxial joint that moves back and forth or side to side
-EX: Carpals in the hand

61

Condyloid Joint

The condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another
-Movement occurs predominantly in one plane with minimal movement in another
-EX: Joints in the fingers

62

Hinge Joint

Uniaxial joint allowing movement predominantly in only one plane of motion, sagittal
-EX: Elbow

63

Saddle Joint

One bone looks like a saddle with articulating bone straddling
-EX: Carpometacarpal

64

Pivot Joint

Allows movement in predominantly one plane of motion
-EX: Radioulnar joint

65

Ball-and-Socket Joint

Most mobile of joints, allows movement in all 3 planes
-EX: Shoulder/hips

66

Nonsynovial Joints

Have no joint cavity, connective tissue, or cartilage
-Exhibit little to no motion
-EX: Sutures of the skull

67

Function of Joints

Motion, movement, and stability

68

Moving One Joint

Directly affects the other joints
-All joints are linked together

69

Joint Connective Tissue

-Ligaments

70

Ligaments Function

-Primary CT that connects the bones together and provides stability, input to the NS, guidance, and the limitation of improper joint movement

71

Ligaments Make-Up

Collagen and Elastin

72

Collagen

Provide ligament with ability to withstand tension (tensile strength)

73

Elastin

Gives ligament some flexibility or elastic recoil to withstand the bending and twisting

74

Ligaments Healing

Slow and poor repair and healing process due to very poor vascularity

75

Exercise Effects on Bone Mass

Bone becomes stronger with exercise