Chapter 2- Biochemistry- Transcription/Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Biochemistry- Transcription/Translation Deck (31):
0

Where does transcription occur?

Nucleus

1

Where does translation occur?

Cytoplasm

2

-What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding sugar?

DNA- has sugar deoxyribose
RNA- has sugar ribose

3

T- What are the differences between DNA and RNA regarding bases?

DNA- has base thymine
RNA- has base uracil

4

What are the difference between DNA and RNA regarding strands?

DNA-double stranded
RNA- single stranded

5

What are the differences between RNA and DNA regarding helix?

DNA- forms double helix
RNA- doesn't form double helix

6

What is the process of transcription?

Process by which an RNA sequence is produced from a DNA template

7

Transcription- What does RNA polymerase separate?
What does it synthesis?

Separates the DNA strands and synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA strands.

8

Transcription- How does RNA polymerase synthesis a complementary RNA copy from one of the DNA stands?

It covalently bonds ribonucleotise triphosphate that align opposite their exposed complementary partner

9

Transcription-Once RNA has been synthesised what does RNA polymerase do?

Detach itself from DNA molecule and double helix will reform

10

Transcription- What is the sequence DNA that has been transcribed into RNA called?

A gene

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Transcription-Name the 3 main types of RNA made and what are they?

Messenger RNA (mRNA)- a transcript copy of a gene used to encode a polypeptide
Transfer RNA (tRNA)- clover leaf shaped sequence that carries an amino acids
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- primarily a component of ribosomes

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Draw the process of transcription

Do it do it do it

13

Genetic code- What is the genetic code?

Set of rules by which encoded mRNA sequence is converted into proteins (amino acid sequence) by living cells.

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Genetic code- What are condones?

Are a triplet of bases which encodes a particular amino acid

15

Genetic code-There are 4 bases so how many condones combinations?

64

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Genetic code-What does the order of condones determine?

The amino acid sequence for a protein

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Genetic code-What does codon always start with?

AUG

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Genetic code- What are the 2 features of the genetic code?

Universal- everything uses same code
Degenerate- only 20 amino acids but 64 codons= more than one codon may code for the same amino acid

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What is the Process of translation leading to polypeptide formation ?

Process of protein synthesis in which genetic information encoded in mRNA is translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

20

Translation- What do ribosomes bind to?
What does it move along to till?

Bind to mRNA in cells cytoplasm and move along in a 5'--> 3' direction till it reaches start (AUG)

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Translation-What do anticodons on tRNA molecules align to?

Align opposite appropriate codons according to complementary base pairing (e.g UAC-->AUG)

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Translation-What does each tRNA molecule carry?

Specific amino acids (according to genetic code)

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Translation-What do ribosomes catalyse?

Catalyse the formation of specific peptide bonds through condensation reactions between adjacent amino acids

24

Translation-Ribosomes move along mRNA molecule synthesising a polypeptide chain until when?

Reaches stop codon- translation stops and chain is released

25

Draw process of translation

Come on martha moon do it

26

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- When a gene is mutated may lead to
What?

Synthesis of defective polypeptide = affects protein function

27

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- how is a gene sequence converted to a polypeptide chain?

Via the process of transcription (making mRNA transcript) and translation (polypeptide synthesis)

28

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide-How does translation use tRNA molecules and ribosomes?

To join amino acids into a polypeptide chain according to mRNA sequence (codon)

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Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- The universality between the genetic code means all organisms while the same relationship between what? Which allows what technique to be employed?

Show the same relationship between genes and polypeptides and this allows transgenic techniques to be employed

30

Relationship between 1 gene and 1 polypeptide- some proteins may consider of a number of polypeptide chains what does this mean it needs multiples of?

Genes

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