Chapter 2- BIOMECHANICS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- BIOMECHANICS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE Deck (53):
1

Which of the following is the definition of power?
A. Mass x accerleration
B. Force x distance
C. Force x velocity
D. Torque x time

C. FOrce x velocity

2

To compare performances of OLY weight lifters of different body weights, the classic formula divides the load lifted by the athletes?
A. Body weight
B. Body weight squared
C. Lean body weight
D. Body weight to the two-thirds power

D. Body weight to the two-thirds power

3

During a free weight exercise, muscle force varies with which of the following?

Perpendicular distance from the weight to the body joint

Movement acceleration

4

A vertical jump involves knee, hip, and shoulder movement primarily in which of the following anatomical plane?
A. Sagittal
B. Perpendicular
C. Frontal
D. Transverse

A.Sagittal

5

An athlete is performing a concentric isokinetic elbow flex ion and extension exercise. Which of the following types of levers occur at the elbow during this exercise?
I.first class
II. Second class
III. Third class

First and third class

6

____ focuses on the mechanisms through which the musculoskeletal components interact to create movement.

Biomechanics

7

The muscle most directly involved in bringing about a movement is called the prime mover or _____
A. Antagonist
B. Agonist

B.Agonist

8

The muscle that can slow down or stop the movement is called the___
A. Agonist
B. Antagonist

B.Antagonist

9

During throwing, the triceps act as an ____, extending the elbow to accelerate the ball. As the elbow reaches full extension, the biceps acts as an ____ to slow down elbow extension and bring it to a stop.
A. Antagonist, agonist
B. Agonist, antagonist

B. Agonist, antagonist

10

A muscle called a ____ when it assist indirectly in a movement

Synergistic

11

A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on opposite sides of the fulcrum

FIrst class lever

12

The pivot point of a lever

Fulcrum

13

A rigid or semirigid body that, when subjected to a force whose line of action does not pass through its pivot point

Lever

14

The ratio of the moment arm through which an applied force acts to that through which a resistive force acts

Mechanical advantage

15

The perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the fulcrum.

Moment arm

16

Force generated by biochemical activity, or Te stretching of no contractile tissue, that tends to draw the opposite ends of a muscle towards each other

Muscle force

17

Force generated by a source external to the body that acts contrary to muscle force

Resistive force

18

A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through a moment arm longer than that through which the resistive force acts

Second class lever

19

A lever for which the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum

Third class lever

20

The degree to which a force tends to rotate an object about a specific fulcrum

Torque

21

Most of the skeletal muscles operate at a considerable mechanical ______ due to the lever arrangement within the body and relative to the external forces the body resist.

Disadvantage

22

When the body is erect, the arms are down at the sides, and the palms face forward?

Anatomical position

23

Plane of the Bicep curl?

Sagittal

24

Plane of the standing lateral dumbbell raise?

Frontal plane

25

Plane of the dumbbell fly

Transverse plane

26

____ is the ability to exert force.

Strength

27

The change is velocity per unit time

Acceleration

28

Acceleration is associated with resistive force according to Isaac Newton's second law:

Force= Mass x Acceleration

29

Time rate of doing work

Power

30

The product of the force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves in the direction the force is exerted

Work

31

Force x Displacement

Work

32

Work/time

Power

33

The angle through which an object rotates is called..

Angular displacement

34

The objects rotational speed measured in radians per second

Angular velocity

35

Work= Torque x angular displacement

Rotational Work

36

The capacity to exert force at any given velocity, and power is the mathematical product of force and velocity at whatever speed?

Strength

37

Neural control affects the maximal force output of a muscle by determining which and how many motor units are involved in muscle contraction

Recruitment

38

The rate at which the motor units are fired?

Rate coding

39

___ muscle has fibers that align obliquely with the tendon, creating a featherlike arrangement.

Pennate

40

The angle between the muscle fibers and an imaginary line between the muscle's origin and insertion.

Angle of pennation

41

When a muscle is at its resting length, the ____ and ____ filaments lie next to each other, so that maximal number of potential cross ridge sites are available. The muscle can generate the greatest force at its resting length.

Actin and myosin

42

When the muscle shortens because the contractile force is greater than the resistive force

Concentric muscle action

43

When the muscle lengthens because the contractile force is less than the resistive force.

Eccentric muscle action

44

WHen the muscle length does not change because the contractile force is equal to the resistive force.

Isometric muscle action

45

Advantages of the stack machines

1.safety
2. Design flexibility
3. Ease of use

46

Advantages of free weights

1. Whole body training
2.simmulation of real-life activities

47

_____ force can act in any direction.

Inertial

48

The resistive force encountered when one attempts to move an object while it is pressed against another object.

Friction

49

The resistive force encountered by an object by moving through a fluid, or by a fluid moving past or around and object or through and opening

Fluid resistance

50

Two sources of fluid resistance are?

Surface drag

51

Toward the anterior

Ventral

52

Toward the posterior

Dorsal

53

The glottis is closed, thus keeping air form escaping the lungs, and the muscles of the abdomen and rib cage contract, creating rigid compartments of liquid in the lower torso.

Valsalva maneuver