Chapter 2-chemical Organization Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2-chemical Organization Deck (79):
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Define an atom

Smallest units of matter

1

What are the 3 subatomic particles and their charges

1. Proton +
2. Neutron NONE
3. Electron -

2

When atoms interact they produce larger more complex structures called___________

Molecules

3

What is the atomic number

Number of protons in an atom

4

Mass number is

Total number of protons and neutrons in atom

5

What's An isotope

Atoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons. Causing different mass number

6

Atomic weight is

Average mass of an element

7

Atomic mass is

Actual mass of a specific isotope

8

4 most abundant elements in the body largest to smallest

1. Oxygen
2. Carbon
3. Hydrogen
4. Nitrogen

9

When an ion loses or gains an electron what happens

Lose an electron means ion becomes positive (cation)
Gains an electron means ion becomes negative (anion)

10

Difference between polar and non polar molecular bonds

Nonpolar bonds share electrons equally
Polar bonds unequal sharing

11

What are the three stages of matter for water

1. Solid
2. Ice
3. Gas

12

The force between the electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule.

Hydrogen bond

13

What is a reactant and a product

Reactant atoms at start of reaction. Usually on left
Product generated at the end of the reaction. Usually on right

14

What is metabolism

All the reactions in the body at one moment

15

What is a decomposition reaction

Break a molecule into smaller fragments

AB ------> A + B

16

What is hydrolysis

Decomposition reaction that involves water
AB + H2O -------> A-H + OH-B

17

What is catabolism

Decomposition reaction in the body
Releases energy that can perform work

18

What is a synthesis reaction

Opposition of decomposition. Assemble smaller molecules into larger.
A + B ----> AB

19

What is a dehydration reaction.

Opposite of hydrolysis
Formation of molecule by removing water

A-H + OH-B ------> A-B + H2O

20

What is Anabolism ?

Forming chemical bonds in the body
Requires energy

21

What is an exchange reaction

Parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around to make new products
AB + CD -------> AD + CB

22

What is activation energy

Minimum energy require to activate reaction

23

What is an enzyme

Promotes chemical reaction and lower activation energy .

CATALYST

24

Overall net release of energy in a reaction is

Exergonic

25

What is an endergonic reaction

More energy is required to start reaction then ends up being released

26

Difference between organic and inorganic molecules

Organic molecules contain carbon and hydrogen inorganic molecules do not contain hydrogen and carbon

27

What makes up 2/3 of your body weight

,water

28

Name 3 important properties of water

1. Lubrication
2. Chemical reactant
3. High heat capacity

29

What is thermal inerita

Large mass of water changing temperature very slowly

30

What is a solvent

Liquid where molecules are distributed

31

Define solute

Dissolving substances

32

What is a solution

Mixture of two or more substances

33

What is an aqueous solution

When water is the solvent (the liquid the materials get distributed into)

34

What is the differences between hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules ?

Hydrophilic molecules are water loving and interact with water
Ex- glucose
Hydrophobic molecules are water fearing and do not interact with water
EX- fats

35

What are electrolytes

Conduct electrical current in solution

36

What is pH

Measure of H+ concentration in body fluids

37

What is a pH lower then 7 considered

Acidic

38

What is a pH of 7 considered

Neutral

39

What is a pH above 7 considered

Alkaline or basic

40

If the concentration of H+ ions is more than the OH- ions the pH is :

acidic

41

If the concentration has more OH- ions than H+ ions the pH is

Basic or alkaline

42

A substance with a pH of 4 is how much more acidic then a substance with a pH of 8

10,000 X more acidic

43

What occurs if the pH of blood falls below 7.35

Acidosis

44

What's alkalosis

When the pH rises above 7.45

45

What is an acid

Substance that releases hydrogen ions

46

What is a base

Substance that removes hydrogen ions from solution

47

An inorganic compound composed of any anion and any cation

Salt

48

What is a buffer

A compound that stabilizes the pH of a solution by removing or adding hydrogen ions

49

What maintains pH within its normal limits

A buffer system

50

What is the most important source of energy for humans

Carbohydrates

51

What are the 3 types of carbohydrate

1. Monosaccharides- glucose
2. Disaccharides- sucrose
3. Polysaccharides- glycogen

52

What is an isomer

Same molecular formula but different structures

53

What molecules are insoluble in water

Fat

54

Describe the head and tail of a fatty acid

Head is hydrophilic and tail is hydrophobic

55

What is a glyceride

Fatty acid attached to a glycerol molecule

56

Three types of glycerides

1. Mono glycerides
2. Diglycerides
3. Triglycerides

57

What molecules provide twice as much energy as carbohydrates

Lipids

58

What is a leukotriene

Lipid produced by cells in repose to injury

59

_________ is released by damaged tissues and stimulates nerve endings, producing sensation of pain

Prostaglandins

60

Large molecules with four carbon rings

Steroids

61

What are proteins made up of

Amino acids

62

What are the most important and most abundant organic molecules in the body

Proteins

63

Structural components of an amino acid are:

Central carbon attached to
1. Hydrogen atom
2. Amino group
3. R group
4. Carboxyl group

64

Amino acids linked through dehydration synthesis are

Peptides

65

What's denaturation

Change in protein shape when body temperature is extremely high and is often fatal or causes irreparable damage

66

What do enzymes do

Facilitate everything that occurs inside the body

67

What is a substrate

Reactant in enzymatic reactions

68

What is an active site

The area of an enzyme where substrates must bind

69

What is the Process of an enzymatic reaction.

1. Substrate binds to active site
2. Substrate binding results in change of shape of enzyme
3. Product detaches from active site
4. Repeat process

70

What does DNA stand for

Deoxyribose nucleic acid

71

What does RNA stand for

Ribonucleic acid

72

What is the function of nucleic acids

Storage and transfer of information

73

What is a nucleotide composed of ?

1. Phosphate group
2. Pentose sugar
3. Nitrogen base

74

What are the purines

1. Adenine
2. Guanine

75

What are the pyrimidines

1. Cytosine
2. Thymine (DNA)
3. Uracil (RNA)

76

What is the structural differences between RNA and DNA

DNA consists of a pair of nucleotide chains where as RNA contains a single strain of nucleotides

77

What are the complementary base pairs in DNA

1. Adenine and thymine (A-T)
2. Cytosine and guanine (C-G)

78

What are the three types of RNA

1. Messenger RNA
2. Transfer RNA
3. Ribosomal RNA