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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Chemistry Of Life/ The tissues Deck (96):
1

Cell composition

-contain cytoplasm (a substance that exists only in cells)
-each cell in the body is surrounded by a thin membrane, the plasma membrane (this membrane separates the cell contents from the salty solutions (interstitial fluid) that bathes every cell in the body)
- specialized structures, organelles are contained within the cytoplasm of each cell
-nucleus is also inside the cell

2

The three main parts of a cell are

-plasma membrane
-cytoplasm
-nucleus

3

Plasma membrane

-encloses the cytoplasm and forms the outer boundary of the cell
-two layers of phosphate- containing fat molecules called phospholipids form a fluid framework for the plasma membrane
-cholesterol helps stabilize the phospholipid molecules to prevent breakage of the plasma membrane
-protein molecules dot the surfaces of the membrane
-serves as a well guarded gateway between the fluid inside the cell and the fluid around it
-certain substances can move through the membrane by way of transporter channels and carriers, but other substances are barred from entry
-certain molecules bind to certain receptor proteins
-identifies a cell as being part of one particular individual

4

Passive transport processes

Going down a concentration gradient; substances move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until they reach equal proportions on both sides of the membrane
1. Diffusion
▪️osmosis
2. filtration

5

Diffusion

Movement of particles through a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; that is, down the concentration gradient
- ex: movement of carbon dioxide out of all cells; movement of sodium ions into nerve cells as they conduct an impulse

6

Osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in the presence of at least one impermeant solute
- ex: diffusion of water molecules into and out of cells to correct imbalances in water concentration

7

Filtration

Movement of water and small solute particles, but not larger particles, through a filtration membrane; movement occurs from area of high pressure to area of low pressure
- ex: in the kidney, water and small solute move from blood vessels but blood proteins and blood cells do not, thus beginning the formation of urine

8

Active transport processes

The uphill movement of a substance through a living cell membrane, up a concentration gradient (from a lower to a higher concentration)
▪️energy required for this movement is obtained from ATP
-ion pump
-phagocytosis
-pinocytosis

9

Ion pump

Movement of solute particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration (up the concentration gradient) by means of a carrier protein structure
-ex: in muscle cells, pumping of nearly all calcium ions to special compartments-or out of the cell

10

Phagocytosis

Movement of a cell or other large particle into a cell by trapping it in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off inside the cell
-ex: trapping of bacterial cells by phagocytic white blood cells

11

Pinocytosis

Movement of fluid and dissolved molecules into a cell by trapping them in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off inside the cell
-ex: trapping of large protein molecules by some body cells

12

Body fluid compartments

Total body fluid can be subdivided into two major fluid compartments
1. Extracellular fluid compartments
2. Intracellular fluid compartments

13

Extracellular fluid (ECF)

-consists mainly of the liquid part of whole blood called the plasma, found in the blood vessels, and the interstitial fluid (IF) that surrounds the cells
-ex: lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, fluids of eyeball, synovial joint fluids

14

Intracellular fluid (ICF)

-the largest volume of body fluid but far
-located inside all of the cells of the body

15

Hypertrophy

Increase in cell size

16

Atrophy

Decrease in cell size

17

Hyperplasia

Increase in cell reproduction

18

Anaplasia

Production of abnormal, undifferentiated cells

19

The four main kinds of tissues that compose the body's many organs include

1. Epithelial tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Muscle tissue
4. Nervous tissue

20

Epithelial tissue

-covers the body and many of its parts
-cells are packed close together with little or no interstitial fluid or other material between them, they form continuous sheets that contain no blood vessels
shape of cells:
-squamous (flat and scalelike)
-cuboidal (cube shaped)
-columnar (more tall than wide)
-transitional (varying shapes that can stretch)
Arrangement of cells:
-simple (a single layer of cells of the same shape)
-stratified (many layers of cells)

21

Simple squamous epithelium

-single layer of flattened cells
-located in alveoli of lungs, lining of blood and lymphatic vessels
-diffusion, filtration, and osmosis

22

Stratified squamous

-many layers; outermost layer(s) is flattened cells
-located: surface of lining of mouth and esophagus, surface of skin (epidermis)
-protection

23

Simple columnar

-single layer of tall, narrow cells
-located: surface layer of lining of stomach, intestines, parts of respiratory tract
-protection; secretion; transport (absorption)

24

Stratified transitional

-many layers of varying shapes, capable of stretching
-located: urinary bladder
-protection

25

Pseudostratified

-single layer of tall cells that wedge together to appear as if there are two or more layers
-located: lining of portions of the respiratory tract, lining of uterine (fallopian) tubes
-protection

26

Simple cuboidal

-single layer of cells that are as tall as they are wide
-located: glands; kidney tubules
-secretion, absorption

27

Connective tissue

-most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body
-relatively few cells embedded in the matrix of most types of connective tissue, varying numbers and kinds of fibers are also present
- varies in strength, elasticity, blood supply, and ability to heal
1. Areolar connective tissue
2. Adipose (fat) tissue
3. Fibrous connective tissue
4. Bone
5. Cartilage
6. Blood
7. Hematopoietic tissue

28

Areolar (loose fibrous) connective tissue

-most widely distributed
-loose arrangement of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and cells
-located: area between other tissues and organs
-connection

29

Adipose (fat) connective tissue

-cells contain large fat vesicles
-located: area under the skin, padding at various points
-protection; insulation; support; nutrient reserve

30

Reticular connective tissue

-netlike arrangement of thin, delicate reticular fibres
-located: red bone marrow; lymph nodes; spleen
-supports soft tissues; filtration

31

Dense fibrous connective tissue

-dense arrangement of collagen fiber bundles
-located: tendons; ligaments; fascia; scar tissue
-flexible but strong connection

32

Bone connective tissue

-hard, calcified matrix arranged in osteons
-located: skeleton
-support; protection

33

Cartilage connective tissue

-hard but flexible matrix with embedded chondrocytes
-located: part of the nasal septum; area covering articular surfaces of bones; larynx; rings in trachea and bronchi; disks between vertebrae, external ear
-firm but flexible support, withstand pressure

34

Blood

-liquid matrix with flowing red and white cells
-located: blood vessels
-transportation

35

Hematopoietic connective tissue

-liquid matrix with dense arrangement of blood cell- producing cells (often supported by reticular tissue)
-located: red bone marrow; lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
-blood cell formation

36

Chondrocytes

Cartilage cells

37

Muscle tissue

-have a higher degree of contractility (ability to shorten or contract) than any other tissue cells
-there are three kinds of muscle tissue:
1. Skeletal muscle tissue
2. Cardiac muscle tissue
3. Smooth muscle tissue

38

Skeletal (striated voluntary) muscle tissue

-long, threadlike cells with multiple nuclei and striations
-located: muscles that attach to bones, eyeball muscles, upper third of esophagus
-maintenance of posture; movement of bones, eye movements, involved in first part of swallowing

39

Cardiac (striated involuntary) muscle tissue

-branching, interconnected cylinders with faint striations
-located: wall of heart
-contraction of heart

40

Smooth (nonstriated involuntary or visceral) muscle tissue

-threadlike cells with single nuclei and no striations
-located: walls of tubular viscera of digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts, walls of blood vessels and large lymphatic vessels, ducts of glands, intrinsic eye muscles (iris and ciliary body), arrector muscles of hairs
-movement of substances along respective tracts, changing of diameter of vessels, movement of substances along ducts, changing of diameter of pupils and shape of lens, erection of hairs (goose bumps)

41

Nervous tissue

-nerve cells with large cell bodies and thin fiber like extensions; supportive glial cells also present
-located: brain; spinal cord; nerves
-irritability; conduction

42

Nervous tissue consists of two kinds of cells

-nerve cells or neurons, which are the functional or conducting units of the system
-glia or neuroglia the special connecting and supporting cells

43

Neurons

-characterized by a cell body and two processes:
- one axon, which transmits a nerve impulse away from the cell body
- one or more dendrites, which carry impulses toward the cell body

44

Growth of new tissue

-regeneration
-epithelial and connective tissues have the greatest capacity to regenerate
-skeletal muscle tissue often regenerates itself when injured
-cardiac and smooth muscle tissue have less ability to regenerate
-nerve tissue limited capacity to regenerate

45

Signs

Objective abnormalities that can be seen or measured by someone other than the patient

46

Symptoms

Subjective abnormalities felt only by the patient

47

3 most important methods for improving quality of life as you age are

-healthful diet
-exercise
-stress management

48

Inorganic compounds

-include water, salts, acids, and bases
-water: makes up 60-80% of the volume of living cells
-salts: ionic compounds that dissolve in water ex NaCl
-acids: any compound that releases H+
-bases: any compound that takes up H+

49

Very important that the PH of the blood is maintenance within the very narrow range of

7.35-7.45

50

Organic compounds

-carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, nucleic acids
-they all contain C-C or C-H (bonds involving carbon and hydrogen)
-they are large molecules that use only a small part of their structure known as a "functional group", to interact with other molecules

51

Carbohydrates (sugars and starches)

-provide fuel for cell functions

52

Lipids (fats, oils, steroids (cholesterol))

-all are insoluble in H2O but will dissolve in alcohol
-triglycerides provide a source of stored energy
-phospholipids provide building blocks for cell membranes
-fatty connective tissue provides layers of protection against physical trauma also provides insulation to prevent heat loss
-steroid cholesterol is a key ingredient in hormones

53

Proteins

-enzymes, hemoglobin, collagen, antibodies, nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
-most basic structural materials in the body
-made up of amino acids

54

Plasma membranes identify your cells as belonging to you (true/false)

True!

55

What aspect of the cell membrane can cause a patient to reject a donated organ?

Carbohydrate chains, in the plasma membrane

56

Most of the body's fluid is contained in (intracellular/extracellular) spaces

Intracellular

57

Epithelial tissues provide support to the body structures (true/false)

False

58

Blood is a liquid form of connective tissue (true/false)

True

59

The two types of tissues that regenerate most readily are:

Epithelial and connective

60

Scars are made up of __________ tissue

Dense, fibrous connective tissue

61

Connective tissues are composed of tightly packed cells (true/false)

False

62

A free radical is a reactive form of oxygen that is a normal product of cellular respiration (true/false)

True!

63

Which of the following is true regarding cells in the human body?
A) excess fluid in the intracellular space would cause cell necrosis
B) cells vary greatly in size, shape, function, and proximity to one another
C) cells are mostly comprised of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
D) all of the above

ALL OF THE ABOVE

64

All of the living contents of a cell are contained within the

Plasma membrane

65

Cellular functions are controlled by the ______ of the cell

Nucleus

66

Metabolic activities are carried out by the _______ which are specialized structures found within the cytoplasm of each cell

Organelles

67

The most superficial layer of skin is comprised of connective tissue (true/false)

False!

68

Which tissue lines our digestive system and forms glands?

Epithelial tissue

69

What aspect of simple squamous epithelium makes it conducive to high speed absorption of oxygen?

-it is a single flattened layer of cells
-because it is very thin substances can easily pass through

70

If you were caught in the middle of a concert hall and could not get to the washroom until the show was over, what type of bladder tissue would you be thanking your lucky stars for?

Epithelial (stratified transitional)

71

What specialized tissue contains mucous producing goblet cells?

Simple columnar epithelium

72

Our intestines are pink, because epithelial tissue has a rich supply of blood vessels (true/false)

False!

73

Connective tissue contains more interstitial space than epithelial tissue (true/false)

True!

74

What part of connective tissue is "non-living"?

The matrix and connective tissue fibers

75

The most abundant type of connective tissue in the body is known as

Areolar connective tissue

76

When areolar tissue stores lipids it is known as ____ and _____ tissue

Adipose or fat tissue

77

Acute disease

Appears suddenly and lasts a short time

78

Chronic disease

Develops slowly and may last an entire lifetime

79

Pathogenesis

How a disease develops over time

80

Syndrome

A collection of signs and symptoms with a common cause

81

Epidemic

An outbreak amongst many people in a defined region

82

A patient has sustained an open fracture to the femur following an MBA. From the following list circle the tissues that have the greatest capacity for regeneration
A) bone
B) skeletal muscle
C) skin surrounding the injury
D) areolar and adipose tissue
E) nerves

A) bone, C) skin surrounding the injury, D) areolar and adipose tissue

83

What three "low tech" methods that are most important for reducing the effects of aging

-healthful diet
-exercise
-stress management

84

A radiograph of an 85 year olds humerus demonstrated a "shaggy" appearance to the periosteum. This is a normal finding (true/false)

True

85

If a patient has pitting edema they have excess fluid in their

Interstitial space

86

If a patient has ascites in their abdomen they have excess fluid in their ________ space

Peritoneal space

87

Mucous membranes

Line body cavities open to the outside

88

The fluid part of blood is part of the

Extracellular fluid compartment

89

Inflamed tissues contain more fluid in the

Interstitial space

90

Which of the following would be most radiographically opaque?
A) chronically inflamed liver
B) a fracture that has completed healed
C) scar tissue on the anterior surface of the forearm
D) internal bleeding in the peritoneal cavity

B) a fracture that has completed healed

91

Intracellular

All the fluid in all the cells of the body

92

Interstitial

All the fluid between the cells of the body

93

Extracellular

All the fluid in the interstitial compartment plus the fluid (plasma) portion of the blood

94

Epithelial tissue

- forms mucous, serous and cutaneous membranes in the body
- has little or no interstitial fluid or matrix
- contains no blood vessels
- is classified by shape and cellular arrangement

95

Different shades of grey by variations in tissue density and thickness

(BLACK) air, soft tissue/fluid, bone, radiographic contrast/metal (WHITE)

96

The more dense a tissue is the more "white" it appears (true/false)

True!
Air (black)
Water/fluid
Blood
Fat
Bone (white)