Chapter 2 - Chordates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Chordates Deck (57):
1

Nerve cord that runs just beneath the surface of the animal, differentiates into the spinal/brain cord. (Synapomorphy of Chordates)

Single, hollow, nerve cord

2

Flexible rod that forms on the dorsal side of the primitive gut in the early embryo and is present at some developmental stage in all chordates (Differentiates into the spinal column/vertebrae that protects the spinal cord) (Synapomorphy of Chordates)

Notochord

3

A synapomorphy of chordates, not notochord, hollow nerve cord, or pharyngeal slits?

Post-anal tail

4

A ciliated, glandular groove on the floor of the pharynx that secretes mucus for trapping food particles during filter feeding (eventually goes away)

Endostyle

5

Connects the pharynx to the external environment; maybe called pouches in terrestrial chordates because it does not connect it to the outside (Synapomorphy of Chordates)

Pharyngeal slits

6

(Non-vertebrate Chordates) -- Subphylum Urochordata (Tunicates or Seasquirts)

- Only larva have all four chordate characteristics
- Adults are sessile (not moving, attached to substrate), have no major body cavity, nor segmentation

7

(Definition of a Vertebrate) - Vertebrae

Serially arragned bones that have replaced the notochord and protect the spinal cord

8

(Definition of a Vertebrate) - Cranium

The skull, which is a bony or cartilaginous structure that protects the brain

9

(Definition of a Vertebrate) - (Embryonic Features) - Hox gene complex

A sequence of DNA that regulates the expression of genes that control the development of body structures

10

(Definition of a Vertebrate) - (Embryonic Features) - Neural crest

a type of embryonic tissue that forms many structures in the head region, including epidermal placodes, which give rise to many sensory organs

11

(Definition of a Vertebrate) - Brain characteristics

Larger and composed of three parts (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain)

12

(Adult Tissue Proteins) - Collagen

Fibrous protein found in soft organ tissue, tough tissue of ligaments and tendons, and in bone matrix

13

(Adult Tissue Proteins) - Elastin

Fibrous protein that makes the tissue stretch and recoil

14

(Adult Tissue Proteins) - Keratin

Fibrous protein only found in vertebrates that makes scales/feathers, hair, nails/claws, horns, and beaks

15

(Adult Tissue Types) - Epithelial

Covers body surfaces and lines the body cavities

16

(Adult Tissue Types) - Connective

Binds and supports the body, including tendons, ligaments, and bone

17

(Adult Tissue Types) - Vascular

A fluid connective tissue that is made up of 45% of formed elements (cellular components_ and 55% plasma (inorganic, organic, water)

18

(Adult Tissue Types) - Muscular

Moves the body and its parts

19

(Adult Tissue Types) - Nervous

Receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses

20

Integument

External covering that protects the body and receives information from the outside world

21

(Skin) - Epidermis

Superficial layer consisting stratified squamous epithelium composed of keratinocytes and melanocytes

22

(Skin) - Dermis

Middle layer consisting of dense fibrous connective tissue containing sensory receptors, blood vessels, and glands

23

(Skin) - Hypodermis

Subcutaneous layer consisting of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue, which stores fat

24

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Cartilage

Stiff, inflexible connective tissue that has no blood supply

25

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Bone

Very rigid connective tissue that does have a blood supply (so it regenerates better than cartilage)

26

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Enamel

Outer tissue found in teeth and dermal scales in sarcopterygii (including all tetrapods) and some actinopterygii

27

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Dentine

Inner tissue found in teeth

28

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Enameloid

Outer tissue found in teeth and dermal scales in most fishes

29

(Adult Mineralized Tissue) - Cementum

Hard, bone-like tissue that fastens teeth in their sockets

30

Hydroxyapatite

A unique type of mineral made up of calcium and phosphorous only found in vertebrates

31

(Cranial System) - Chondocranium

Supports the brain

32

(Cranial System) - Splanchonocranium

Surrounds and supports the gills nad is part of the jaw in gnathostomes

33

(Cranial System) - Dermatocranium

Forms the skin as an outer cover, only found is some bony fish

34

(Cranial Musculature) - Extrinsic Eye Muscles

Six striated muscles that rotate the eyeball

35

(Cranial Musculature) - Branchiomeric Muscles

Muscles associated with the splancocranium that used for sucking in water during feeding and respiration in fish

36

Axial Skeleton

The vertebral column that goes from the posterior end of the pituitary gland to the flesh part of the tail and was developed from the notochord. The intervertebral discs are what is left of the notochord

37

(Axial Musculature) - Myomeres

- Make up axial muscles
- In Amphioxus, myomeres are V shaped
- In vertebrates, myomeres are W shaped
- In gnathostomes, the myomeres are divided into epaxial (dorsal) and hypoxial (ventral) portions, which is separated by a horizontal septum
- In tetrapods, this segmentation of the muscles is less obvious

38

Feeding

Includes getting food into the mouth, oral/pharyngeal processing (Mammals - mastication (chewing)/ Snakes - jaw unhinging), and swallowing

39

Digestion

Includes breaking down complex compounds into small absorbable molecules

40

Peristalsis

The involuntary, rhythmic movement of the smooth muscles that helps transport food through the digestive system

41

Liver and Pancreas

Produces enzymes to help in digestion

42

Cloaca

A common opening in most vertebrates for digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems (Only some mammals are unique in that we have a separation of the digestive and reproductive systems)

43

Gills

Respiratory structure in aquatic vertebrates (except Dolphins which are mammals and have lungs)

44

Lungs

Respiratory structure in terrestrial vertebrates

45

Cutaneous Respiration

Diffusion of gases through skin, seen in primitive terrestrial vertebrates and amphibians

46

Vertebrates have a ________ circulatory system.

Closed

47

Heart

Organ that pumps blood

48

Vessels

Structure which blood flows through

49

Sinus Venosus

Posterior heart chamber that receives blood from the veins

50

Atrium

Heart chamber that receives blood from the sinus venosus or the veins

51

Ventricle

Heart chamber that receives blood from the atrium and pumps it into the aorta

52

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart (A for artery = away)

53

Capillaries

Thin, small vessels that have large surface area to allow gas exchange with the tissues

54

Veins

Carry blood to the heart

55

Portal Veins

Veins found between two capillary beds

56

(Excretory System) - Kidneys

Organ that gets rid of waste and regulates the bod's water and mineral

57

(Excretory System) - Nephrons

Microscopic tubules within the kidney that produce urine