Chapter 2 - Electoral Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Electoral Systems Deck (37):
1

What is a majoritarian system? What kind of constituencies does it have?

Where a candidate must secure an absolute majority (50% + 1). Candidates are usually elected in single member constituencies. Non proportional

2

What is the plurality system? What kind of constituencies does it have?

The winner needs the plurality of votes (1 more than their closest rival). Single member constituencies, non proportional. FPTP is a simple P.S.

3

What is Proportional Representation? What kind of constituencies does it have?

Covers many system which offer a close fit between votes and seats. The district magnitude is important- bigger= more proportional. EP elections are PR. Multi-member constitutions

4

What is a mixed system? What kind of constituencies does it have?

A proportion of representatives elected in single member constituencies by majority/plurality systems, and the others are elected as additional members by PR

5

What kind of system is FPTP?

Simple Plurality System

6

What is the size of the average constituency?

70,000 people

7

What are the traditional features & outcomes of the FPTP system? (name 3)

Two party system, a winner's bonus, bias to Labour Party, marginalized 3rd & smaller parties, single party government

8

Define 'Party System'

The set of political parties in the system and the relationships between them

9

What percentage of the electorate voted for the main two parties in 2015?

67%

10

Explain 3 reasons for FPTP's bias to Labour

Differences in constituency size (inner city ones smaller, and voting Labour)
Turnout (lower at Labour held seats.. 61% vs 68% to Conservatives)
Tactical Voting (as in 2001 and 2005)

11

Which elections did not deliver a single party government?

Feb 1974 and 2010

12

Name 3 advantages of FPTP?

Simplicity, Clear Outcome, Strong and Stable Government, Responsible Gov, Effective Representation

13

Name 3 disadvantages of FPTP?

Disproportional outcomes, plurality, votes are unequal value, limited choice, divisive politics

14

Define wasted vote

A vote for a losing candidate in a single-member constituency or vote for a winning candidate not required for them to win. (74% of votes in 2015 lost this way)

15

Define Adversarial Politics

A situation in two party systems where the governing party is confronted by an opposition party that offers a different policy programme

16

Summarise the Alternative Vote in 4 points

-Single Member Const.
-Majoritarian
-Numbered Preferences
-Lowest place eliminated & 2nds distributed

17

Name 2 advantages of AV

Representatives elected by majority
Candidates need broad support
Link between Const. and Reps. maintained

18

Name 2 disadvantages of AV

Not proportional
Least unpopular not most popular
Second preferences of extremist voters considered

19

Summarise the Supplementary Vote in 4 points

-Form of AV
-1st & 2nd Preferences
-No majority then all but top 2 candidates eliminated & 2nd prefs added to 1st from remaining candidates
-Candidate with highest total elected

20

Name 2 advantages of SV

Broad support needed
2nd prefs from minor parties not considered

21

Name 2 disadvantages of SV

Don't need majority to win
For GE it wouldn't be proportional

22

Define Regional list in 4 points

-Multi-member const
-List of candidates
-Vote for party (closed list) or certain candidate (open list)
-Seats allocated proportional to votes

23

2 advantages of RL

Proportional
Lists can be used to increase numbers of women and ethnic minorities

24

2 disadvantages of RL

Closed list= no choice between candidates
Parties control lists and can favour candidates who support leadership
Link between const. and reps. weakened

25

Define Single Transferable Vote in 3 points

-Multi-member constituencies
-Numbered preferences
-Candidate has to meet Droop quota: (total poll/(seats+1) + 1
- If not met, lowest eliminated, etc

26

Name 2 advantages of STV

Only party with 50%+ can form gov
Large range of candidates
Proportional

27

2 disadvantages of STV

Less proportional than list systems
Weakens link between Reps. & Consts.
Produces Coalition gov

28

Define Additional Member System in 5 points

- Proportion elected by FPTP
-Additional Members elected in multi-member constituencies
-AM done with list system
-2 votes- one for single member and one for multi-member const.
- AMs allocated using d'Hondt rule

29

Name 2 advantages of AMS

Balances desirability of const rep with fairness in election outcomes
Broadly proportional
Greater choice- split ticket voting

30

2 disadvantages of AMS

Creates 2 classes of reps
Parties have control over lists
Smaller parties unrepresented because multimember seats elect few representatives

31

Where is SV used?

(London) Mayoral Elections, and Police & Crime Commissioner

32

What is Closed RL used for?

European Parliament elections in UK

33

STV is used where?

Assembly, Local Gov in Scotland, elections in Northern Ireland

34

AMS is used where?

Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, London Assembly

35

Name 5 key impacts of the new electoral systems

Greater proportionality
Multi-party systems
Minority/coalition governments
Split ticket voting
Complexity
Low Turnout
Weakened constituency links

36

How many ballots were rejected at the 2007 Scottish Parliament election because they were filled out wrong?

146,000

37

What was the turnout for Police and Crime Commissioner elections in 2016?

26.4 %

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