Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Electoral Systems Deck (37):
What is a majoritarian system? What kind of constituencies does it have?
Where a candidate must secure an absolute majority (50% + 1). Candidates are usually elected in single member constituencies. Non proportional
What is the plurality system? What kind of constituencies does it have?
The winner needs the plurality of votes (1 more than their closest rival). Single member constituencies, non proportional. FPTP is a simple P.S.
What is Proportional Representation? What kind of constituencies does it have?
Covers many system which offer a close fit between votes and seats. The district magnitude is important- bigger= more proportional. EP elections are PR. Multi-member constitutions
What is a mixed system? What kind of constituencies does it have?
A proportion of representatives elected in single member constituencies by majority/plurality systems, and the others are elected as additional members by PR
What kind of system is FPTP?
Simple Plurality System
What is the size of the average constituency?
What are the traditional features & outcomes of the FPTP system? (name 3)
Two party system, a winner's bonus, bias to Labour Party, marginalized 3rd & smaller parties, single party government
Define 'Party System'
The set of political parties in the system and the relationships between them
What percentage of the electorate voted for the main two parties in 2015?
Explain 3 reasons for FPTP's bias to Labour
Differences in constituency size (inner city ones smaller, and voting Labour)
Turnout (lower at Labour held seats.. 61% vs 68% to Conservatives)
Tactical Voting (as in 2001 and 2005)
Which elections did not deliver a single party government?
Feb 1974 and 2010
Name 3 advantages of FPTP?
Simplicity, Clear Outcome, Strong and Stable Government, Responsible Gov, Effective Representation
Name 3 disadvantages of FPTP?
Disproportional outcomes, plurality, votes are unequal value, limited choice, divisive politics
Define wasted vote
A vote for a losing candidate in a single-member constituency or vote for a winning candidate not required for them to win. (74% of votes in 2015 lost this way)
Define Adversarial Politics
A situation in two party systems where the governing party is confronted by an opposition party that offers a different policy programme
Summarise the Alternative Vote in 4 points
-Single Member Const.
-Lowest place eliminated & 2nds distributed
Name 2 advantages of AV
Representatives elected by majority
Candidates need broad support
Link between Const. and Reps. maintained
Name 2 disadvantages of AV
Least unpopular not most popular
Second preferences of extremist voters considered
Summarise the Supplementary Vote in 4 points
-Form of AV
-1st & 2nd Preferences
-No majority then all but top 2 candidates eliminated & 2nd prefs added to 1st from remaining candidates
-Candidate with highest total elected
Name 2 advantages of SV
Broad support needed
2nd prefs from minor parties not considered
Name 2 disadvantages of SV
Don't need majority to win
For GE it wouldn't be proportional
Define Regional list in 4 points
-List of candidates
-Vote for party (closed list) or certain candidate (open list)
-Seats allocated proportional to votes
2 advantages of RL
Lists can be used to increase numbers of women and ethnic minorities
2 disadvantages of RL
Closed list= no choice between candidates
Parties control lists and can favour candidates who support leadership
Link between const. and reps. weakened
Define Single Transferable Vote in 3 points
-Candidate has to meet Droop quota: (total poll/(seats+1) + 1
- If not met, lowest eliminated, etc
Name 2 advantages of STV
Only party with 50%+ can form gov
Large range of candidates
2 disadvantages of STV
Less proportional than list systems
Weakens link between Reps. & Consts.
Produces Coalition gov
Define Additional Member System in 5 points
- Proportion elected by FPTP
-Additional Members elected in multi-member constituencies
-AM done with list system
-2 votes- one for single member and one for multi-member const.
- AMs allocated using d'Hondt rule
Name 2 advantages of AMS
Balances desirability of const rep with fairness in election outcomes
Greater choice- split ticket voting
2 disadvantages of AMS
Creates 2 classes of reps
Parties have control over lists
Smaller parties unrepresented because multimember seats elect few representatives
Where is SV used?
(London) Mayoral Elections, and Police & Crime Commissioner
What is Closed RL used for?
European Parliament elections in UK
STV is used where?
Assembly, Local Gov in Scotland, elections in Northern Ireland
AMS is used where?
Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, London Assembly
Name 5 key impacts of the new electoral systems
Split ticket voting
Weakened constituency links
How many ballots were rejected at the 2007 Scottish Parliament election because they were filled out wrong?