Chapter 2: Genetic & Environmental Foundations Flashcards Preview

PSYC 3300: Development > Chapter 2: Genetic & Environmental Foundations > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Genetic & Environmental Foundations Deck (37):
1

Chromosomes

-rod-like structure made up of DNA
-coils of DNA that carry genes

2

Genes

-short -segment of DNA

3

DNA

-double stranded molecules
-carrier of genetic information

4

Genotype

genetic plan

5

Phenotype

genes that are expressed

6

Meiosis

cell reproduction that produces gametes (sex cells) with 23 chromosomes

7

Mitosis

cell production that produces exact replica with 46 chromosomes

8

Alleles

-possible form of a gene, only if there are different variations of said gene
ex: eye colour

9

Polygenic Inheritance

-process of genetic transmission that results in a phenotype that is influenced by many genes
ex: height

10

Regulator Genes

function: turn on/off other genes at certain points in life cycle or in response to environment

11

Monozygotic Twins

-identical
-single fertilized ovum splits in two

12

Dizygotic Twins

-fraternal
-ovary releases two ova
OR
-same unfertilized ovum splits into two (more similar, more rare)

13

Incomplete Dominance

despite only one recessive gene, symptoms are present

14

Ultrasound

sound-waves (non-diagnostic)

15

Amniocentesis

amniotic fluid removed & studied (diagnostic)

16

Chorionic Villus Sampling

villi removed & studied (diagnostic)

17

Preimplantation Diagnosis

after IVF, blastocyst is examined before implantation (diagnostic)

18

Maternal Blood Screening

examination of specific hormones & proteins (non-diagnostic)

19

Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis

isolate & examine fetal cells circulating in the mothers blood (diagnostic)

20

Infertility

inability to conceive after 12-18 months

21

Canalization

measure of the ability of a population to produce the same phenotype regardless of variability of its environment or genotype

22

Reaction Range

the variability in the expression of inherited traits as they are influenced by environmental factors

23

Passive Gene-Environment Correlation

due to the fact that the same people provide genes & environment for children
ex: smart parents = smart kids

24

Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation

due to genotypically different individuals evoke different responses from their environments
ex: smiling babies

25

Active Gene-Environment Correlation

children select context that they find rewarding and therefore tend to maintain or strengthen their genetically influenced traits

26

Heterozygous Alleles

alleles that are different (dominant/recessive) but relationship determines the phenotype

27

X-Linked Inheritance

harmful allele carried on the X chromosome
males more likely to express

28

Genomic Imprinting

genes whose expression is determined by the parent that contributed them. Violates usual rule of inheritance that both alleles in a heterozygosis relationship are equally expressed

29

Mutation

sudden but permanent change in a segment of DNA

30

Genetic Counseling

communication process to asses risk levels of potential fetus for hereditary disorders

31

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

affected by
1) years of education
2) job prestige + required skills
3) income

32

Behavioural Genetics

how nature and nurture affect diversity in human traits & abilities

33

Heritability

estimates measure to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors

34

Gene-Environment Interaction

due to their genetics, people differ in their responsiveness to qualities of the environment

35

Gene-Environment Correlation

genes influence the environment
-passive, active, evocative correlations

36

Epigenetics

development results from on-going, bidirectional exchanges between heredity + all levels of the environment

37

Methylation

biochemical process triggered by certain experiences, in which a set of chemical compounds (called a methyl group) lands on top of a gene and changes its impact, reducing or silencing its expression